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If you’ve purchased an NVIDIA 2000-series or 3000-series GPU, you’re probably already aware of the big, new feature of these product lines: ray-tracing. What you may not know is that under the umbrella of NVIDIA’s ray-tracing features is another even more game-changing feature: Deep Learning Super Sampling (DLSS). While it sounds like a mouthful, what it does is remarkably simple and totally awesome for gamers. Read on to learn everything you need to know about DLSS, how the technology has evolved, and how to start using DLSS today!

What is DLSS and how does it work?

In short, DLSS lets you run games at higher resolutions and higher framerates for free.

In version 1.0 of DLSS, it took stills of frames of games running at low resolutions and with a lot of aliasing, then used these images to generate high-quality, higher-resolution versions of these images. Finally, it fed the stills and their high-quality counterparts into a supercomputing cluster that trained itself to recognize aliased and low-resolution frames and generate high-quality, high-resolution frames in response.

Though each individual game required “training” first on NVIDIA’s end, once NVIDIA’s AI could successfully recognize low-quality frames and use those to generate high-quality copies, by turning DLSS on, gamers had a lot more control over their experience. If you want to run a game at higher graphical settings or resolutions but are unsatisfied with the performance, DLSS lets you render your game at a lower resolution, getting the performance benefit of doing so. It can output a much higher quality image.

Version 2.0 of DLSS refined the technique’s application. The higher-quality images generated are even more detailed than before, and on the backend, NVIDIA has moved to a game-agnostic system, so every individual game doesn’t need to be tested and trained before DLSS can be implemented. With DLSS 2.0 came some customization of the feature itself: instead of choosing between On and Off, you can pick between Quality, Balanced, and Performance modes, which offer upscaling from a variety of resolutions.

If this sounds a little like black magic to you, that’s normal, but it’s important to remember that DLSS is not a piece of software. It’s not something that can be downloaded or patched into your game. The Tensor cores on NVDIA’s last two GPU lines that enable ray-tracing features are the same cores that power DLSS, which is why DLSS is considered an RTX feature, even if it itself is not actual ray-tracing.

How to use DLSS

Luckily, DLSS can be found with all your other graphical settings in games. This means there isn’t an NVIDIA setting you have to toggle or a Windows setting you have to mess with. Assuming you have an RTX NVIDIA GPU installed and your drivers (alongside the GeForce Experience application) and copy of Windows are up to date, the only thing you have to do is find the DLSS switch in-game.

It’s important to remember to set your game to whatever resolution you’re looking to use for output. If you’re planning on using DLSS to upscale to 4K, your resolution should be set to 4K. By turning DLSS on, under the hood the game will run at a lower internal resolution and will then be upscaled to your desired resolution. DLSS is best used at higher resolutions, like 1440p and 4K, which are particularly expensive, especially when you want to run at framerates higher than 60 frames per second.

Lastly, if you’re already running a game at a high framerate at a high resolution or if your computer is bottlenecked by a different component like your CPU, the benefits of DLSS will be far less pronounced. It’s also important to keep in mind that performance gains will always depend on your card’s load as well as the rest of your hardware.

Top supported games

Not all games will support DLSS! At the time of writing (mid 2023), only 41 games in total support it. However, its presence in many of these games greatly improve performance and visual quality, especially with DLSS 2.0 or newer integration. It even helps offset some of the performance lost by enabling ray-tracing in supported games. Right now, the best implementations of DLSS we’ve seen can be found in the following 10 games:


Death Stranding

Cyberpunk 2077

Amid Evil

No Man’s Sky


Metro Exodus Enhanced Edition (Note: the original Metro Exodus supports ray-tracing and DLSS 1.0, while the Enhanced Edition requires ray-tracing and supports DLSS 2.1)

Minecraft: Bedrock Edition

Call of Duty: Warzone

Crysis Remastered

What is FidelityFX Super Resolution?

FidelityFX Super Resolution is a competing open-source standard pioneered by AMD, Nvidia’s main competition. Like DLSS, its goal is to use upscaling technology to enable gaming at higher resolutions without bringing your graphics card to its knees.

Unlike DLSS, however, FidelityFX Super Resolution is NOT hardware-accelerated by Tensor cores or other specialized hardware. It’s an open-source in-software solution for tackling the problem that DLSS is made to solve, and since it’s open source, Intel is likely to make use of it in future GPU releases, too. (And yes, Nvidia cards will support it too.)

Where supported, FidelityFX and DLSS will do a lot to reduce the performance requirements demanded by next-generation games on high-resolution displays. We especially recommend getting a card that supports one or both of these features if you plan on using a 1440p or 4K monitor, since that is where they’re the most useful.

Christopher Harper

I’m a longtime gamer, computer nerd, and general tech enthusiast.

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What Is Localhost And How Can You Use It?

The localhost – also referred to as ‘the loopback address’ – is used to establish an IP connection or call, to your own computer or machine. The loopback address is typically used in the context of networking and provides a computer the capability to validate the IP stack.

Anyone with a background or interest in networking will find it important to learn and understand the affiliated computer terminology with the field. Localhost is one such piece of terminology seen as beneficial to any computer technician. Understanding the importance and uses of localhost is also a great place to begin your journey into networking terminology.

Table of Contents

What Is LocalHost and How Is It Used?

Not just a term, localhost can also be a domain name, like chúng tôi or chúng tôi Just like any domain, the localhost will also have its own Internet Protocol (IP) address. 

The address needed will depend on the internet protocol being used. Calling the localhost using IPv4, which is the most common IP, will have a range of to but will typically default to IPv6 users can establish a loopback by entering :1.

Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) was put in place to establish a standard method for computers to communicate with other devices on the network. It not only governs addresses but also how your data is sent and received for both local networks and on the internet.

IPv6 has begun slowly replacing IPv4. The demand for IP addresses has grown exponentially in the wake of the digital boom. More and more devices are using the internet, so IPv6 was developed to accommodate the increase and address a few of the fundamental flaws found in IPv4. 

Where IPv4 allows for approximately 4.3 billion unique IP addresses for use, IPv6 will permit up to 340 trillion, trillion.

How Works

This means that if a data packet is dropped off outside of the localhost, the information will not continue on to another computer on the network. This helps to maintain network security by preventing your machine from picking up stray data packets that may attempt to activate other services in response.

Common Uses For Localhost

Aside from security capabilities, localhost can be useful in a few other scenarios. There are three primary purposes for the loopback address considered useful to a computer network technician.

Running A Speed Test

Sending a ping request is the most common use you’ll find for the loopback address. Using the Windows Command Prompt, you can test your connection and discover any performance issues your computer may currently be facing.

To perform a ping request to localhost:

The results will be displayed on the screen. The data shown will include the number of data packets sent, received, lost, and the approximate round trip time of the data transmission.

Blocking Websites

When you need to block access to certain websites, localhost can do the trick. The loopback can be quite useful in the prevention of your browser from entering malicious sites. To pull this off, you’ll need to know what host files are and the purpose they serve in this context.

Each time your computer attempts to access a website or remote computer using the domain name, the computer will send a request to the Domain Name Server (DNS) in search of a locally stored host file. 

For example, the IPv4 address, will be displayed as ‘localhost’ in the DNS. The domain name of any new website you visit will also find itself stored as a host file. This creates a faster load response for any return visits to the same site.

The host file will also contain the IP addresses of all the domain names it stores. You’ll have to edit these IP addresses to match the loopback address in order to block them. Doing so will cause traffic to be directed back to the localhost instead. 

Testing New Programs Or Web Applications

Whenever a loopback is triggered, your operating system becomes a simulated server. This makes it possible to load any necessary files of a program into the server in order to test functionality. 

What Is Replay Attack And How Do You Prevent It?

Everything is now available online, including our personal data. We are guided by algorithms and we make our choices according to them. There are different ways third-party persons like hackers can also access such personal and sensitive data. Data breaches happen regularly and our sensitive data leaks with them. It is one way to access personal data. The other way is through a Replay attack. In this guide, we explain to you what is Replay attack and how you can prevent it.

What is Replay Attack?

A replay attack is a kind of network attack where a middle person enters and captures the traffics and messages sent over a network, delays it, and then resends it to mislead the receiver into doing what the hacker wants. This kind of attack doesn’t even require the hacker to decrypt the message or high-end skills. Take for example where Mark asks his friends James to lend him some amount via a text message. James might have sent the amount. Suppose, if the same is intercepted by an attacker, he will send the same message to James asking for the amount as Mark which James might send again if he believes so. This is how Replay attacks happen.

This kind of attack happens everywhere online like while you are shopping with your cards, logging into social media accounts, company accounts, etc. The attackers just know the data exchange and replay it with malicious intent.

How do you prevent Replay Attack?

There are different ways using which you can prevent these kinds of attacks.

Use OTPs

Using HTTPS Protocols

Use a VPN

Use a timestamp

Use a Session Key

Let’s get into the details of each method.

1] Use OTPs

One-time passwords or OTPs are the most secure way to safeguard yourself online. It ensures that even with the replay the attacker cannot resend them as it needs an OTP to access. This can prevent replay attacks and safeguard your data.

2] Using HTTPS Protocols

Log in to websites with HTTPS protocols enabled. There are many trustworthy web browser extensions available that make sure only the HTTPS version of the website is loaded.

3] Use a VPN

Virtual Private Networks or VPNs send you traffic data through separate tunnels with good-level of encryption. No one can read the data that is transferred through VPN tunnels. It is one of the secure ways to use the internet as it provides security from many things on the internet. Even the VPNs help you stay secure while using a public-WiFi.

4] Use a timestamp

Another way to prevent replay attacks is to add a timestamp that’s valid only for a short period of time. It will eliminate the possibility of replaying by the attacker even after intercepting it.

5] Use a Session Key

It involves the use of complete random session keys that are valid for a single transaction. The session key contains special codes which cannot be predicted or bypassed. This makes it hard to perform a replay attack.

These are the different ways using which you can prevent replay attacks.

Read: What is Buffer Overflow Attack?

Are Replay attacks common?

Replay attacks are very common and they are in news almost every day. The majority of replay attacks are happening where it involves money transfers. We need to be alert to be safe from such attacks.

Read: What is Man-In-The-Middle Attack (MITM)

What is Replay attack with example?

A replay attack is nothing but a person delivering the same message pretending as you to the recipient, after some time. The recipient believes that it is you who sent the message and performs what the attacker wants. An example of this is when you log in to a website and an attacker intercepts it, he will replay the login credentials after some time and takes over your account without knowing you.

Read: Secure yourself, avoid online scams and know when to trust a website!

What Is Kali Linux And Do You Need It?

If you have heard a young would-be hacker talking about penetration testing, chances are, you would inevitably hear what Kali Linux is. It is a Debian-based Linux distribution that aims to be a complete toolkit for security professionals.

Kali Linux includes a lot of penetration testing and security auditing tools by default. In that regard, Kali delivers, too. Many of the best open-source tools for conducting security tests are in here and ready to use.

Why Use Kali Linux?

One of the biggest selling points of Kali Linux is that it is a convenient all-in-one solution. For the most part, Kali doesn’t require you to maintain a Linux machine and collect your own software. All of the set-up work is out of the way, and you can fully focus on testing the system you’ve set out to audit.

Aside from that, Kali is also being developed and maintained by Offensive Security. They’re a well-known and trusted institution in cybersecurity. You can be confident that the tools that Kali Linux provides are both trustworthy and highly effective.

Kali Linux has many security tools. It has classic information-gathering tools, like NMap, Wireshark and dig.

Kali also has WiFi-centered tools like Aircrack-ng, Kismet, and Pixie.

For attacking passwords, there are tools like Hydra, Crunch, Hashcat, and John the Ripper.

Then there are more complete suites of tools. For example, you can use the Metasploit Framework and Burp Suite out of the box.

That’s only a small percentage of the security tools available in Kali. It would take a long time to go through all of them, but you can clearly see that many of the more popular tools are represented.

Installing Kali Linux

Kali is a Linux distribution. Like any other, you can install it permanently on a hard drive or virtual machine. That works fine, but you don’t want to use Kali as a daily driver operating system. It’s purposely built for penetration testing, and that’s about all that you should use it for.

Note: you can also install Kali Linux on your Android phone.

Kali’s System Requirements

Before you can install Kali Linux, have the following resources available:

Ample amount of disk space in your machine. In most cases, Kali should work well on a 32 GB flash disk.

64-bit processor and 2 to 4 GB of onboard memory, as Kali Linux uses a number of resource-intensive programs in its toolkit.

Your machine needs to have the ability to either do virtualization or external media booting.

It is important to note that Kali works best as a live distribution. You can either burn it to a USB driver or run it off of a virtual machine. You don’t need to install anything on Kali or save any files, so spinning it up on the occasion where you need to test a system is great. It also affords the flexibility to get a Kali machine running anywhere on whichever network you’re looking to test.

This article focuses on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox as a live system in Ubuntu 22.04 LTS.

Installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox

To install Kali Linux, obtain the virtualization client you want to use. In this case, I am installing VirtualBox:




virtualbox p7zip

Obtain a copy of Kali Linux from its official website. For example, you can run the following command to download it from the terminal:








Install Kali Linux as a virtual machine by pressing Win, then typing “virtualbox.”

Using Kali Linux

A small window will open and immediately boot the virtual machine in your system.

Kali will load to a simple login screen. By default, the username and password for the system should be “kali.”

Tips: learn how you can access an Android phone using Kali Linux.

Finding and Running Tools in Kali

Once you are logged in, use the tools available in Kali to conduct security auditing. For example, press the Kali logo on the desktop’s upper-left corner to get an organized list of programs in the system.

Run nmap -h to print a brief overview of the available options and flags for the program. Knowing that, run the following command to scan the entire subnet for any online clients:





Lastly, Kali Linux also provides powerful data processing tools, such as Hashcat, that you can use to crack hashes. For example, you can run hashcat -h to look at some of the program’s options.

Aside from that, you can also run the following command to test whether your machine can run Hashcat on a reasonable speed:



Is Kali Linux For You?

Kali is not for everyone. It’s not a regular Linux distribution to run on your laptop to think you’re cool for running a “hacker OS.” If you do so, you’re running a potentially insecure system. Kali is designed to run as root. It’s not secured and configured like a regular Linux distribution. It’s an offensive tool, not a defensive one.

Kali isn’t a joke, either. You can do some real damage with the tools that it comes bundled with and can get you into real trouble. It’s all too easy for an uneducated user to do something seriously illegal and find themselves in a situation no one wants to be in.

With all that having been said, Kali is a great tool for professional use. If you’re a network admin and want to conduct real-world tests on your network, Kali might be just what you need. Kali also has some excellent tools for developers (especially web devs) to audit their applications before they go live.

Of course, if you want to learn more about security the right way, you can certainly use Kali in a virtual environment to teach yourself or follow any number of great courses.

Frequently Asked Questions Is it safe to browse the internet using Kali Linux?

While you can use the Internet in Kali, the developers of the distribution did not design the system for casual Web browsing, so there are many missing multimedia tools and codecs in the default install, and some websites may not function properly when viewed in Kali Linux.

Is it possible to install third-party programs in Kali?

Similar to a regular Debian installation, you can install any third-party application through the apt program.

Aside from that, you can also use both snap and flatpak packages in Kali.

Image credit: Unsplash. All alterations and screenshots by Ramces Red.

Ramces Red

Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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What Is It & How To Use It?

Download DisplayFusion for Windows 10




Mac, Windows, Windows 10, Windows 7


Version 9.6.1


Download now




To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

DisplayFusion is a software app that can enhance your multi-monitor experience by providing you with extra features. For instance, you can create customizable hotkeys, and enable multi-monitor taskbars or title bar buttons.

You can even use it to customize the way your multi-monitor setup displays your favorite wallpaper. We can all agree that the built-in wallpaper manager from Windows isn’t exactly easy-going when it comes to customization.

DisplayFusion’s system requirements

As you might know, every software solution on the market comes with its own list of system requirements. In this case, DisplayFusion makes no exception, as it can’t run on just about any machine you install it on. However, we found the list of requirements to be pretty slim.

As a matter of fact, you only need a PC that’s able to run Windows 7 at least for DisplayFusion to run properly. We can confirm that this program runs flawlessly on Windows 10, as well. Thus, you don’t have to worry about compatibility issues, either.

How to install DisplayFusion

You can get DisplayFusion to run on your PC in two convenient manners. The first way is by performing a standard installation of the program, with everything that it involves. You download the installer, launch it, accept the EULA, configure the destination path, and follow the on-screen instructions.

If you are a network administrator, for instance, and need to deploy this program to a group, you’re in luck. DisplayFusion also features an MSI installer that you can use just for that.

Last, but not least, there’s a portable version of this program that you can download. You should only use this version if you’re interested just to test the program and nothing more. If you want DisplayFusion to run properly on your PC, you should download the standard installer and install it on your PC.

DisplayFusion free version

Unfortunately, you can’t have that much awesomeness for free. While DisplayFusion does have a free version, many cool features are missing from this edition. While some features are missing entirely from the free version, others are just limited.

For instance, the free edition lets you customize wallpapers, but it doesn’t let you load random images from your PC, doesn’t provide you with many online image sources, and doesn’t fix the wallpaper settings if the display configuration changes. You get the point.

You can also take the Pro version of DisplayFusion for a test drive for 30 days. You don’t have to do anything to benefit from the 30-day trial. Just download the free version and you’ll be granted a 30-day Pro version trial automatically.

⇒ How to get a DisplayFusion license key at the cheapest price


What Is Facebook Watch And How To Use It

There’s no shortage of on-demand video streaming services today. From Netflix, to Hulu, to Amazon Prime — there are so many alternatives to cable out there, it’s becoming difficult to pick just one. If you’re on Facebook a lot, you might not need to make the choice, since the site has its own streaming platform called Facebook Watch.

Facebook Watch is a free video-on-demand service that Facebook users can use for streaming premium content, as well as sharing their own videos with the community. Facebook Watch also allows you to throw virtual parties with your Facebook friends. 

Table of Contents

Find out how to use Facebook Watch and how to get the most out of this service.

What Is Facebook Watch? 

Facebook Watch is a streaming service integrated with Facebook, like Messenger or Marketplace. It exists separately from your News Feed, however, you can access it through the main Facebook site. 

Facebook Watch is free to use and is available on both the mobile app and the Facebook website. You won’t find a lot of network material on Facebook Watch. Instead, you can expect a lot of user-generated content mixed with the professional content produced specifically for Facebook, including original drama and comedy series, talk shows, and lots of fiction works. 

How to Use Facebook Watch

The only requirement that Facebook Watch has is that you need a Facebook account to use Facebook Watch. You don’t need to download or install any additional apps, as all Facebook Watch content can be accessed through the main Facebook’s site.

To start streaming content on Facebook Watch, follow the steps below.

Open Facebook on your desktop or mobile and sign into your account.

If you’re using Facebook on your desktop, from the menu on top of the screen, select Watch. 

If you’re using the Facebook app on your smartphone, select the three horizontal lines to open the menu, then select Videos on Watch. 

Select a video or a show you want to watch.

How to Search for Content on Facebook Watch

Facebook Watch is organized like YouTube. There aren’t any channels, but instead there are different content creators who have their own pages with videos on Facebook Watch. Facebook Watch also has a number of its own Originals and series — each of them will also have a dedicated page with the description of the show, users ratings, and episodes.

Here’s how you can navigate Facebook Watch and find the content to stream.

Use the Search Bar

The easiest way to find a video on Facebook Watch is by using the search bar. You can find it in the upper-left corner of the Facebook Watch main page. Type the name of a video or a show you’re looking for into the search bar and see if it’s on Facebook Watch.

Check Out Facebook Watch Top Picks

If you don’t have the name of a specific show or a video you want to watch, you can just scroll through the Facebook Watch Top Picks. They’re videos chosen for you by Facebook based on your interests, hobbies, videos you’ve watched on Facebook in the past, and your location. 

Use Facebook Watch Menu

Depending on what type of video content you’re looking for, you can use the Facebook Watch menu to find it. In the upper-left corner of your screen, you can select to search for Shows, or Live streams of sports games. 

You can also find a section with Gaming videos on Facebook Watch. It’s similar to live streams on Twitch or YouTube gaming. To find live game streams or pre-recorded game videos, select Gaming from the Facebook’s menu on top of the screen. Then join one of the live streams or browse the rest of the videos by the streamers. 

Your Watchlist

Facebook Watch allows you to save your favourite video content to your Watchlist where you can access it later. When you select your Watchlist for the first time, you’ll see that you already have all the pages you follow listed there. You can add and remove them from your Watchlist any time. 

If you want to add a video or a show to your Watchlist, select Follow or Save Video on the video’s page. The video will then appear in your Saved videos and Latest videos lists, so you can quickly access it next time. 

How to Host a Facebook Watch Party

Hosting a Facebook Watch party is a great way to watch your favorite videos with friends when you can’t physically be in the same place. Thanks to the Facebook Watch party feature, you can sync your videos and watch them at the same time, while also discussing it using the Facebook Watch party chat in real time. 

Can You Upload Your Own Videos to Facebook Watch?

Any Facebook user can upload videos to Facebook. However, if you want your video to show up on Facebook Watch, you’ll need to upload them using a Facebook Page and not your personal account. 

Even if you post your videos from a Facebook Page, there’s no guarantee they’ll show up on Facebook Watch. All you can do is try to make sure your content looks professional, has a certain message for the audience, and that you’re consistent with your content production. The more videos you post, the more followers your page will have, and it will boost the likelihood of your content on Facebook Watch. 

Is Facebook Watch the New YouTube?

While Facebook Watch might seem like a mixed bag, it’s still worth checking out since the service’s completely free. If you’re absolutely opposed to the idea of spending more time on Facebook, or don’t have a Facebook account at all, check out these other streaming services that make great alternatives to YouTube. 

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