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Overview of Tkinter Menu

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There is two popular variety of Menu, we will discuss here:

Pull-down

Pop-up

Syntax:

w = Menu ( master, option, ... )

Master: The parent window, where the widget needs to be imbibed.

Option: The various parameter related to the widget used.

Menu Methods with Examples

The different methods are given below:

1. Pull-down Menu

Let’s discuss the first type of menu, i.e. Pulldown Menu.

Code:

from tkinter import * Master = Tk() variable = StringVar(Master) variable.set("Open") # default value wi = OptionMenu(Master, variable, "Open", "save", "save as") wi.pack() mainloop()

Output:

As one can see, “OptionMenu” is used from the Tkinter package to implement a pull-down menu. Tk helps in the creation of the top-level window. Here “OptionMenu” will pop up with a button. To which, we have set a default value of “Open”. Rest other values “save” & “save as” can be selected from the dropdown. If further someone wants action to be associated with it, one can use the .get() function to accomplish it.

Then here is the approach:

Code:

from tkinter import * Items = [ "egg", "toffee", "chicken", "beef", "bread", "Choclate", "Milk" ] Master = Tk() wi.pack() mainloop()

Output:

One can even add a submenu to the menu.

Code:

from tkinter import * from tkinter import filedialog def Donothing(): x = 0 root = Tk() menu = Menu(root) root.config(menu=menu) filemainmenu = Menu(menu, tearoff=0) filesubmenu = Menu(filemainmenu, tearoff=0) menu.add_cascade(label="File", menu=filemainmenu) filemainmenu.add_cascade(label="Save", menu=filesubmenu) filesubmenu.add_command(label="Save Nothing", command = Donothing) root.mainloop()

Output:

As one can see, “Save Nothing” is a submenu of the “Save” Label.

With the help of “add_cascade”, one can create a sub-menu under the main menu. If you notice well, the “filesubmenu = Menu(filemainmenu, tearoff=0)” command is used to associate filesubmenu with filemainmenu. One can add a seperator as well between the options. Like:

Code:

from tkinter import * from tkinter import filedialog def Donothing(): x = 0 root = Tk() menu = Menu(root) root.config(menu=menu) filemainmenu = Menu(menu, tearoff=0) filesubmenu = Menu(filemainmenu, tearoff=0) menu.add_cascade(label="File", menu=filemainmenu) filemainmenu.add_cascade(label="Save", menu=filesubmenu) filesubmenu.add_command(label="Save Nothing", command = Donothing) filemainmenu.add_separator() filemainmenu.add_command(label="Exit", command=root.quit) root.mainloop()

Output:

If someone notices well, we used the command: “filemainmenu.add_seperator()”. Its sole purpose is to add a line of separation to the menu.

There are many methods related to the drop-down menu. One needs to experiment with all in order to get a good grip over Menu designing with Tkinter.

2. Pop-up Menu

The pop-up menu is the menu shown anywhere in the window. It is also known as the context menu. Let’s understand it through the code below.

Code:

from tkinter import * def Hi(): message.config(text = "Hi") def Hey(): message.config(text = "Hey") root = Tk() root.title("This is an Example: PopUp Menu") #w.pack() message = Label(root,bg = "grey") message.pack(fill = BOTH,expand = YES) # create a menu popup = Menu(root, tearoff=0) popup.add_command(label="Print Hi",command = Hi) popup.add_command(label="Print Hey",command = Hey) def perform_popup(event): # To display the popup menu try: popup.tk_popup(event.x_root, event.y_root, 0) finally: popup.grab_release() message.bind("", perform_popup) mainloop()

Output #1

Output #2

As one can see, how to pop up window is used to print “Hi” or “Hey” accordingly, with the help of functions defined. First, the window is created with the help of the Tkinter root(which is the top-level window), and then a pop-menu is added to it with the help of “Menu(root)”

Command:

"popup.tk_popup(event.x_root, event.y_root, 0)" will post the pop up at location "x_root" and "y_root"

Suppose someone doesn’t want any action to be associated with the label. One can opt for it by simply doing nothing.

Code:

from tkinter import * def Donothing(): x = 0 def Hey(): message.config(text = "Hey") root = Tk() root.title("This is an Example: PopUp Menu") #w.pack() message = Label(root,bg = "grey") message.pack(fill = BOTH,expand = YES) # create a menu popup = Menu(root, tearoff=0) popup.add_command(label="Print Hi",command = Donothing) popup.add_command(label="Print Hey",command = Hey) def perform_popup(event): # To display the popup menu try: popup.tk_popup(event.x_root, event.y_root, 0) finally: popup.grab_release() message.bind("", perform_popup) mainloop()

Output:

Conclusion

As we saw above, the Tkinter menu and its various usage-based on certain examples. The examples shown above are straightforward and easy to grab. Tkinter menu is of great help in building applications with various options as part of it. One can embed options in a drop down or pop up menu as per requirement and hence associate it with action items. There are many methods available with the menu; one must get their hands dirty to understand it fully.

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This is a guide to Tkinter Menu. Here we discuss the overview, Syntax, Menu Methods and Examples along with the codes & outputs. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

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Syntax And Examples Of Matlab Syms

Introduction to Matlab Syms

In MATLAB, syms is used as a shortcut to the inbuilt function sym. This function can be used to create symbolic variables. The Symbolic variables used in MATLAB are not constants like the regular variables; we do not assign values to them. One important function in this toolbox is the syms function, which creates a symbolic object and automatically assigns it to a MATLAB variable with the same name. This allows for convenient manipulation and evaluation of symbolic expressions in MATLAB.

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Syntax of Matlab Syms

Syntax for Syms Function in Matlab:

syms variable1 variable2 …... variableN

syms variable1 variable2 …... variabeN [n1 …... nM]

syms f(variable1, variable2, …..., variableN)

Description:

syms variable1 variable2 …… variableN is used to create symbolic variables variable1 … variableN. Separate different variables by spaces. ‘syms’ function will clear all the assumptions from variables.

syms variable1 variable2….. variableN [n1 … nM] is used to create symbolic arrays variable1 …. variable. Each array will have the size n1- X -…- X -nM & will contain automatically generated symbolic variables.

syms f(variable1, vaiable2, ….., variableN)is used to create the symbolic function & symbolic variables, which will represent input arguments of function ‘f.’ Please note that a single call can be used to create more than one symbolic function.

Examples of Matlab Syms

Let us now understand the code to use syms in MATLAB.

Example #1

Code:

syms A

[Creating symbolic variable A using syms]

[Creating symbolic variable A using syms]

A

[Displaying the variable created]

[Displaying the variable created]

The command syms A will create a symbolic variable ‘A’ & will automatically assign it to a MATLAB variable with the same name.

This is how our input and output will look in the MATLAB command window:

Input:

A

Output:

As we can see in the output, the command syms A has created a symbolic variable ‘A’ & assigned it to a variable with the same name (A).

Example #2

In this example, we will use syms function to create multiple variables.

Code:

syms A B C

[Creating symbolic variables, A, B, C using syms] C

[Displaying the variables created]

[Displaying the variables created]

The command syms A B C will create 3 symbolic variables A, B & C & will automatically assign these to MATLAB variables with the same name.

This is how our input and output will look like in MATLAB command window:

Input:

C

Output:

As we can see in the output, the command ‘syms A B C’ has created 3 symbolic variables and assigned them to variables with the same name (A, B, C).

Example #3

Code:

syms x [1 5]

[Creating symbolic vector ‘x’ using syms]

[Creating symbolic vector ‘x’ using syms]

The command syms x [1 5] will create a symbolic vector ‘x’ of the size 1 X 5

x

[Displaying the vector created]

[Displaying the vector created]

This is how our input and output will look like in MATLAB command window:

Input:

syms x [1 5] x

Output:

As we can see in the output, the command syms x [1 5] has created a symbolic vector of the size 1 X 5.

Example #4

In this example, we will use syms function to create a symbolic matrix with multiple rows. This output matrix will have its elements generated automatically in the workspace.

Code:

syms x [2 4]

[Creating symbolic matrix ‘x’ using syms]

[Creating symbolic matrix ‘x’ using syms]

The command syms x [2 4] will create a symbolic matrix ‘x’ of the size 2 X 4

x

[Displaying the matrix created]

[Displaying the matrix created]

This is how our input and output will look like in MATLAB command window:

Input:

syms x [2 4]

Output:

As we can see in the output, the command syms x [2 5] has created a symbolic matrix of the size 2 X 4.

Example #5

In this example, we will use syms function to create a symbolic function with 3 variables x, y, z. Below are the steps we will follow:

Create a symbolic function of required variables/arguments.

Specify the formula for the function created.

Pass the arguments to compute the value of the function.

Code:

syms f(x,y,z)

[Creating symbolic function ‘f’ using syms]

[Creating symbolic function ‘f’ using syms]

f(x,y,z) = 2*x + 5*y - z^2

[Specify the formula for the function created]

[Specify the formula for the function created]

f(1,2,3)

[Pass the arguments to compute the value of the function]

[Pass the arguments to compute the value of the function]

This is how our input and output will look like in MATLAB command window:

Input:

f(1,2,3)

Output:

As we can see in the output, the command syms f (x, y, z) has created a symbolic function ‘f’.

Conclusion

Syms function is used in creating symbolic variables dynamically.

These are used to solve various expressions with the help of functions available in MATLAB.

Syms function can also be used in creating symbolic functions dynamically.

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Examples, Working, Methods, How To Use?

What is a React Bootstrap

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Working with Methods of Adding Bootstrap in React

With the help of packages.

With the help of Bootstrap dependency installation.

With the help of Bootstrap CDN.

1. Adding bootstrap in react with help of bootstrap packages

To include Bootstrap in React, there are 2 methods:

react-bootstrap

reactstrap

Example with react-bootstrap:

The below example focuses on addition using react-bootstrap:

It is installed with npm:

npm install –save react-bootstrap

Our chúng tôi file includes:

import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css";

Once we install the package, the components can be used in any components file.

Components inside the public folder:

index.html

Components inside the src folder:

AOC folder

App.css

App.js

Menu.js

index.js

styles.css

Components inside the AOC folder:

AboutUS.js

AboutUSdescriptive.js

a. index.html

b. AboutUS.js

Code:

import React , { Component } from "react"; import { Jumbotron , Button } from "react-bootstrap"; import { Link } from "react-router-dom"; export default class PasoAOCInicio extends Component { constructor() { super(); this.state = { name: "React" }; } render() { return ( EDUCBA is a best platform for online training and video courses. We provide trainings related to latest emerging technologies. We help in building up the careers of professionals into these emerging fields. <Button variant="primary" to="/AOC/pasoAOCDatosIdentificativos" as={Link} > ); } }

c. AboutUsdescriptive.js

Code:

import React , { Component } from "react"; import { Button } from "react-bootstrap"; import { Link } from "react-router-dom"; export default class PasoAOCDatosIdentificativos extends Component { constructor() { super(); this.state = { name: "React" }; } render() { return ( <Button variant="primary" to="/AOC/pasoAOCDatosIdentificativos" as={Link} > ); } }

d. App.css

e. App.js

Code:

import React , { useState } from "react"; import { Row , Col } from "react-bootstrap"; import { HashRouter as Router , Route , Redirect } from "react-router-dom"; import PasoAOCInicio from "./AOC/AboutUS.js"; import PasoAOCDatosIdentificativos from "./AOC/AboutUsdescriptive.js"; import Menu from "./Menu"; import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"; import "./App.css"; <Route path="/AOC/pasoAOCDatosIdentificativos" component={PasoAOCDatosIdentificativos} ); export default App;

f. Menu.js

Code:

import React from "react"; import Navbar from "react-bootstrap/Navbar"; import Nav from "react-bootstrap/Nav"; import { NavLink } from "react-router-dom"; About Us Contact Info ); export default Menu;

g. index.js

Code:

import React from "react"; import ReactDOM from "react-dom"; import HashRouter from "react-router-dom/HashRouter"; import Container from "react-bootstrap/Container"; import App from "./App"; ReactDOM.render( document.getElementById("root") );

h. styles.css

Code:

.App { font-family: 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; text-align: center; }

Output:

Example with reactstrap

The below example focuses on addition using reactstrap:

It is installed with npm:

npm install -g create-react-app

Our chúng tôi file includes:

import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css";

Once we install reactstrap package, the reactstrap components can be used in any components file.

Components inside the public folder:

index.html

Components inside the src folder:

BadgeList folder

Breadcrumb folder

ButtonList folder

Dropdown folder

ListGroup folder

AlertList.jsx

index.js

Components inside BadgeList folder:

index.jsx

Components inside the Breadcrumb folder:

index.jsx

styles.css

Components inside ButtonList folder:

index.jsx

styles.css

Components inside the Dropdown folder:

indexxjsx

Components inside ListGroup folder:

index.jsx

styles.css

a. chúng tôi (in BadgeList folder)

Code:

import React from "react"; import { Badge } from "reactstrap"; return ( Blog What is EDUCBA? ); }; export default BadgeList;

b. chúng tôi (in Breadcrumb folder)

Code:

import React from "react"; import { Breadcrumb , BreadcrumbItem } from "reactstrap"; import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css"; import "./styles.css"; const styles = { marginBottom: "21px" }; return ( ); }; export default Bread;

Code:

.breadcrumb { background-color: opaque; }

d. chúng tôi (in ButtonList folder)

Code:

import React from "react"; import { Button } from "reactstrap"; import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css"; import "./styles.css"; return ( Software Development Excel Design EDUCBA ); }; export default ButtonList;

e. chúng tôi (in ButtonList folder)

Code:

.btn-success { background-color: #f082ff; }

f. chúng tôi (in Dropdown folder)

Code:

import React from "react"; import { Dropdown , DropdownToggle , DropdownMenu , DropdownItem } from "reactstrap"; import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css"; export default class DropdownComponent extends React.Component { constructor(props) { super(props); this.toggle = this.toggle.bind(this); this.state = { dropdownOpen: false }; } toggle() { this.setState({ dropdownOpen: !this.state.dropdownOpen }); } render() { return ( ); } }

g. chúng tôi (in ListGroup folder)

Code:

import React from "react"; import { ListGroup , ListGroupItem } from "reactstrap"; import "./styles.css"; return ( ); }; export default Listgroup;

h. chúng tôi (in ListGroup folder)

Code:

.list-group { margin: 31px 0; } a.list-group-item { font-weight: 601; } .list-group-item::before { content: "▶︎"; display: inline-block; padding-right: 9px; font-size: 13px; line-height: 2; }

i. chúng tôi (in src folder)

Code:

import React from "react"; import { Alert } from "reactstrap"; return ( ); }; export default AlertList;

j. chúng tôi (in src folder)

Code:

import React from "react"; import ReactDOM from "react-dom"; import ButtonList from "./ButtonList"; import BadgeList from "./BadgeList"; import AlertList from "./AlertList"; import Listgroup from "./ListGroup"; import Bread from "./Breadcrumb"; import DropdownComponent from "./Dropdown"; const styles = { margin: "21px" }; return ( ); };

k. chúng tôi (in public folder)

Code:

To run this kindly enable JavaScript.

Output:

2. Adding bootstrap in react with help of dependency installation

It is installed with npm:

npm install bootstrap npm install jquery popper.js

Our chúng tôi file includes:

import "../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css";

Now let’s code:

index.html

Components inside the src folder:

components folder

index.js

styles.css

Components inside the components folder:

templates folder

HelloWorld.js

Components inside templates folder:

HelloWorldHtml.jsx

a. HelloWorldHtml.jsx

Code:

import React from "react"; return ( ); };

b. HelloWorld.js

Code:

import React, { Component } from "react"; import { HelloWorldHtml } from "./templates/HelloWorldHtml.jsx"; class HelloWorld extends Component { render() { } } export default HelloWorld;

c. index.js

Code:

import React from "react"; import ReactDOM from "react-dom"; import bootstrap from "bootstrap"; import "../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"; import HelloWorld from "./components/HelloWorld"; function App() { return ( ); } const rootElement = document.getElementById("root");

d. styles.css

e. index.html

Code:

<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no"

3. Adding bootstrap in react with the help of CDN

Hello.js

index.html

index.js

a. chúng tôi Code:

import React from 'react';

b. index.html

Code:

To run this please enable JavaScript.

c. index.js

Code:

import React from 'react'; import { render } from 'react-dom'; import Hello from './Hello'; const styles = { fontFamily: 'times', textAlign: 'center', }; class App extends React.Component { render() { return ( ); } }

Output:

Conclusion

On the basis of the above article, we saw how to use it and the different methods to use it. We went through different examples to understand its works and how to use it according to the different requirements of the website.

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Types Of Loops In Swift And Examples With Code

Definition of Swift Loop

Swift loop is part of swift programming language which comes into play when a situation arises where the same piece of code needs to be executed multiple times. In swift loop the statements get executed in the form of a sequence where the first statement gets executed first followed by the second statement and so on. Swift loop gives programmers the privilege to call and reuse the same sequence of statements any specified number of times. Swift loop works according to the sequence of conditional and control statements provided within the flow of loop.

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Types of Loops in Swift

Types of loops in Swift with loop control statements are as follows :

While loop

For-in loop

Repeat…while loop / Do while loop

For-condition-increment loops

break statement

continue statement

1. While loop

Syntax :

while (condition_for_execution) { Conditional_statements for the body of the code }

Example 1: This program illustrates the while loop where a game of chess is played and if the condition is satisfied then the game is won as shown in the output.

Code:

import Foundation import Glibc var crrnt_lvl:Int = 1, trgt_lvl:Int = 8 let check_mate = true while (crrnt_lvl <= trgt_lvl) { if check_mate { print("Game is won (crrnt_lvl)") crrnt_lvl += 1 } } print("while_loop_outside.")

Output:

2. For-in loop

for-in loop in a swift programming language is used for iterating over the set of data structures like array and dictionary which have some sequence and order to follow and walkthrough. The elements present in the array or dictionary need to be in proper arrangement.

Syntax

for index_with_sequence { statements for the body of the code }

Example 2: This program illustrates the for-in loop in swift programming language which is used for iterating over the list of arrays with vehicle name for getting the number of tires present within the vehicles as shown in the output.

Code:

import Foundation import Glibc let no_of_tyres = ["car": 4, "truck": 6, "bike": 2] for (vehicle_nm, tyre_cnt) in no_of_tyres { print("(vehicle_nm)s that consists of (tyre_cnt) tyres.") }

Output:

3. Repeat…while loop or do-while loop

Repeat while loop or do while loop behaves in a way that whichever statement is present within the body with the conditional statement will get executed at least once in the entire execution. More important focus area is the termination condition which it tests for once in the entire search at the time of execution of the statements in an increment manner. Loop execution continues until execution of statement becomes false.

Syntax:

repeat { Statements_to_satisfy_body } while (conditional_statements)

Example 3: This program illustrates the repeat while loop where a game like snake and ladder is played where there is a scenario to repeat the conditional statements within the board game to make the entire game a win situation with the condition as shown in the output.

Code:

import Foundation import Glibc let finl_sqr = 36 var brd_gm = [Int](repeating: 0, count: finl_sqr + 1) brd_gm[05] = +12; brd_gm[08] = +11; brd_gm[10] = +09; brd_gm[12] = +02 brd_gm[20] = -05; brd_gm[22] = -13; brd_gm[24] = -02; brd_gm[28] = -09 var sqr = 0 var dc_rll = 0 repeat { sqr += brd_gm[sqr] dc_rll += 1 if dc_rll == 12 { dc_rll = 1 } sqr += dc_rll } while sqr < finl_sqr print("Game_Won!")

4. For-condition-increment Loops

There is not much difference in for-condition-increment loops in Swift programming language as compared to C programming language. The entire loop consists of an initialization phase followed by a test of the condition, increment with the statement, and then to execute every iteration of the loop.

Syntax:

For initialization_vl; condition; increment++ { Conditional_statements_for_body }

Example 4: This program illustrates the for-condition-increment loops in swift with version 4.0 which uses stride to give the same feature as for-condition-increment in Swift 3 versions and below as they are now obsolete for more requirements thus the features are deprecated to give the same output as shown below.

Code:

import Foundation import Glibc for indx in stride(from: 0, to: 8, by: 6) { print(indx) }

Output:

5. Break Statement

Whenever the situation is to come out of the running program without waiting to get a termination till the end of execution gives break statement the push and ability to be used frequently. In actual terms, break statement is mostly used for encountering a loop inside the body. The loop gets terminated at one go when the program control calls for break as soon as possible and will resume at the next statement in the following loop.

Syntax:

Switch statement { Case 1 : Case 2 : . . . Case n: Default : Break; } Print statement { Statement; }

Code:

import Foundation import Glibc let nm_symbl: Character = "X" var psbl_int_val: Int? switch nm_symbl { case "1", "X": psbl_int_val = 1 case "2", "X": psbl_int_val = 2 case "3", "X": psbl_int_val = 3 case "4", "X": psbl_int_val = 4 default: break } if let int_val = psbl_int_val { print("The int_value_comes (nm_symbl) out to be (int_val).") } else { print("the int_value_cannot come out for. (nm_symbl).") }

Output:

6. Continue Statement

Continue statement keeps a check on the iteration statement to keep the loop with a check whether to stop or start the execution once the start after the beginning of the loop is performed.

Syntax:

Case 1 : Stmnt_1; Case 2 : Stmnt_2; . . . . Case 3 : Stmnt_3; Default: continue { Print() }

Example 6: This program demonstrates the continue statement which instructs to continue the flow till the next iteration is made as shown in the output by removing the characters that are not needed.

Code:

import Foundation import Glibc let pzl_inpt = "hope_all_is_good" var pzl_otpt = "" let Remv_chrcters: [Character] = ["e", "h", "s", "g", "d", " "] for Charc_incl in pzl_inpt { if Remv_chrcters.contains(Charc_incl) { continue } pzl_otpt.append(Charc_incl) } print(pzl_otpt)

Output:

Conclusion

Swift loop is a looping pattern which is mostly performed in order to perform reusability of code especially for not to perform repetition of same components. All the iteration within the array, dictionary with a specified count, and sequence is performed using swift loop which provides many more features like flexibility, robustness, and versatility by removing the redundancy within the codebase.

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How Methods Work In Ruby With Sample Codes

Introduction to Ruby Methods

In Ruby to accomplish any set of the task or to write a certain set of expression (It may be for calculation of the percentage of number or to finding addition for the two numbers), we use the method, the method returns a value after performing its specific task which we have written inside it in the form of expression, to create any method in Ruby we use the def command (def add or def percentage) and we can pass arguments to these methods after the method names like (def add (a,b)), after writing all the expressions we need to end the method by writing end at the bottom of the method.

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How does Methods Work in Ruby

When we write code def and name of the method it means we are instructing the system about the method, the system takes it as the instruction for defining a method.

After the name of the method we are passing the parameters, here parameter can be on or multiple like def method example (a,b,c). Hence we are giving instructions to the system about the number of parameters.

Next thing we are going to perform some activity inside the function, this activity can be anything like addition, multiplication or any other mathematical or logical calculations.

Whatever we will write at the end of the method expression it will be returned, so do not require to return anything manually.

Finally the time comes to call the method which we have defined here, to call the method we simply use the name of the method and by doing this simply we are calling the address where the method is available and it will perform all the related operations.

Code:

#Start of the method with parameters def methodExample(parameters) #Here we perform the operation or the task which we needed   #No need to return anything as in it default return the last   line of the expression . end #Calling of the method methodExample methodExample How to define Methods?

To define any method we will use the def command here, there can be two types of method one is the normal method and another one is the class-based method.

Let’s discuss both the types here:

1. Without class and params based method

Code:

def greetingForAll puts "Welcome to all of in the Ruby programing world" puts "This example is for the method without params and class" end greetingForAll

Output:

2. With Class and without params Method

Here in the below example we are working on the method which belongs to the Student class and they are not getting params or arguments in the method call. We can explain the below example in the following steps :

class Student def greetingForAll puts "Welcome to all of in the Ruby programing world" puts "This example is for the method without params and class" end end studentObjec =Student.new studentObjec.greetingForAll

Output:

How to define Methods with Parameters?

Below are the methods:

1. Method without class and with params

Here in the below example we are working on the method which does not belong to any class and it is getting params or arguments in the method call. We can explain the below example in the following steps:

Code:

def greetingForAll (name ,designation) puts "Welcome to organisation mr #{name} you are working here as #{designation}" end greetingForAll("ranjan","Software Engineer") greetingForAll("Ajat","Civil Engineer")

Output:

2. The method with class and with params

Here in the below example we are working on the method which belongs to the Student class and it is getting params or arguments in the method call. We can explain the below example in the following steps:

We defined a class with the name of the Student. Inside the class Student we have defined a method with some params as the student information. In the next step we are calling this method with the object which we have created from the Student class (greeting for all(passing params)). Once we call the method with its name on the object we created it will print all messages related to passed params for the student. Please see the below example along with a screen of output.

Code:

class Student def greetingForAll (name ,designation) puts "Welcome to organisation mr #{name} you are working here as #{designation}" end end studentObject = Student.new studentObject.greetingForAll("ranjan","Software Engineer") studentObject.greetingForAll("Ajat","Civil Engineer")

Output:

Conclusion

From this tutorial we learned about the concept of method in Ruby, we learned about various types of method used in the Ruby-like method with params, with class and the method without params without class, we have also given little focus on the working and execution steps for the Methods.

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We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Ruby Methods” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How Arraylist Works In Kotlin With Examples?

Introduction to Kotlin arrayList

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Syntax of Kotlin arrayList

The kotlin language has many default classes, interfaces, and methods to implement the code collections. Based on the requirement, it may varies the data either may be stored or removed from both user and programmer end.

{ vars.add(“”) vars.remove(index value) —-some logic codes— }

The above codes are the basic syntax for to utilise the arrayList() class in the application. However, based on the programming and user requirements, we may use additional in-built methods for to accessing and implement the application.

How arrayList Works in Kotlin?

The arrayList is one of the collection class in the kotlin language; it is mainly used for to store the datas in a dynamic format. Mainly the size of the ArrayList class can be increased or decreased according to the specific requirement. The ArrayList class supports some default built-in methods like add(), remove() etc. It also provides both read and write operations in all the default functions. Each set of collections with default memory size will be allocated like that ArrayList class is initialized with the initial amount of capacity that is not fixable, and it can be changed later in the programming requirement.

Element or value is the type which is used in ArrayList class on the kotlin language, and also it can be added using the other collection the class also declared by using its generic types. The element in the ArrayList class can be traversed using the iterator() method based on the looping statement. Each value is iterated and the element present at the specified index value. The duplicate items/elements are accepted on the arrayList class; the index must be unique to retrieve the elements from the database. Thus, we can able to create the arrayList implementation with the mutable list.

Examples of Kotlin arrayList

Given below are the examples of Kotlin arrayList:

Example #1

Code:

package one; class Test { fun first(){ val m=41 println(m) aLs.add("Your first input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your second input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your third input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your fourth input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your fifth input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your sixth input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your seventh input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your eigth input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your ninth input is entered on the input text box") aLs.add("Your tenth input is entered on the input text box") } } println("Welcome to my domain its the third example that related to the kotlin arrayList") aL.add("Its a January month") aL.add("Its a February month") aL.add("Its a March month") aL.add("Its a April month") aL.add("Its a May month") aL.add("Its a June month") aL.add("Its a July month") aL.add("Its a August month") aL.add("Its a September month") aL.add("Its a October month") aL.add("Its a November month") aL.add("Its a December month") for(i in aL) print("The arryList are iterated please find your input values $i ") println() aL.set(5,"Thank you users have a nice day your input months are validated and") for(j in aL) print("Have a Nice day users please try again $j ") val t=Test() println(t.first()) }

Output:

In the above example, we used arrayList classes and its methods like add() for to perform the operations from the user end.

Example #2

Code:

package one; interface mnths { var vars: String fun sample():String fun sample1() { aL.add("Your first input is Tajmahal") aL.add("Your second input is PAris Palace") aL.add("Your third input is Mysore Palace") aL.add("Your fourth input is Thanjavur temple") aL.add("Your fifth input is Madurai") aL.add("Your sixth input is Coimbatore") aL.add("Your seventh input is Tiruppur") aL.add("Your Eigth input is Erode") aL.add("Your Eigth input is Chennai") aL.remove("Your Eigth input is Erode") } } println("Welcome to my domain its the second example that related to the kotlin arrayList") val first = listOf("Tajmahal", "PAris Palace", "Mysore Palace", "Thanjavur temple","Madurai","Coimbatore","Tiruppur","Erode","Chennai") var third = first.singleOrNull { it == "Madurai" } if (third != null) { print("Your input value is found:$third") } else { print("Your input values are not matching also its not found!") } var Places = arrayListOf("Tajmahal", "PAris Palace", "Mysore Palace","Thanjavur temple","Madurai","Coimbatore","Tiruppur","Erode","Chennai") println(out) }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

package one; println("Welcome to my domain its the third example that related to the kotlin arrayList") lst.add("your first input is TV") lst.add("your second input is Fridge") lst.add("your third input is Washing machine") lst.add("your fourth input is Computer") lst.add("your fifth input is UPS") lst.add("your sixth input is LapTop") lst.add("your seventh input is grinder") lst.add("your eigth input is mobile") lst.add("your ninth input is sofa") lst.add("your tenth input is chairs") println("Your total output is based on the inputs") for (j in lst) { println(j) } println("We can retrieved the elements by using arrayList.get(3)") println( lst.get(2)) println("We can get the index of the element by using arrayList.indexOf("UPS")") println(lst.indexOf("UPS")) }

Output:

In the final example, we used additional arrayList methods like get() and indexof() methods to fetch the backend results.

Conclusion

In kotlin collections is one of the util package and its more useful for to perform the operations like add, remove and fetch the datas from backend to UI. Like that, arrayList is one of the classes, and its methods for performing the data operations in the applications depend on the requirement.

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This is a guide to Kotlin arrayList. Here we discuss the introduction, syntax, and working of arrayList in kotlin along with examples and code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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