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Search engines create maps of the Internet called Link Graphs and these maps help search engines determine whether or not a site is relevant or low quality and how the site fits into the Internet. Link graphs are a part of ranking and for that reason it’s important to understand what they are how your strategies make sense with this way of mapping the Internet.

What are Link Graphs?

Search engines map the Internet by the link connections between each website. These maps of the Internet are called Link Graphs. Link graphs reveal multiple qualities about websites on the Internet.

Link graphs show how sites are connected to each other.

Link graphs can be used to identify what topics a website is about.

Link graphs can be used to identify spammy sites.

Sites Link to Other Sites Related to their Topic

Sites about software and technology link to other sites about software and technology. Sites about cooking tend to link to other sites related to cooking.

The important take away about link graphs is that they can help tell search engines what a site is relevant for.

The link graph can also reveal networks of spam sites. While spam sites link to normal non-spam sites, normal sites do not tend to link to spam sites.

This has the effect of isolating spam sites into their own corners of the link graph.

I promise that any jargon will be explained and what seems complicated will be simplified.

Link Distance Ranking Algorithms

There are some algorithms that rank links. Whether or not Google uses these kinds of algorithms is not known for certain. We just know they exist and that they perform very well for discovering which sites are spam, which sites are normal and what the topic of the sites are.

Read: Link Distance Ranking Algorithms

The way this works a map of the web is created that has multiple starting points. Each starting point is called a Seed Site. Each seed site which represents a site that’s expert, authoritative and trustworthy in its topic.

Sites that the seed site directly links to are also trustworthy and expert. What was discovered in this kind of algorithm is that the further away a link was from the original seed site the less trustworthy, expert and authoritative that site tended to be.

For the purposes of illustrating the link relationship:

If a seed site links to a site, let’s call it a child site.

If that child site links to a site, let’s call it a grandchild site (of the seed site).

Sites that are in between, we can call them etcetera.

The seed site-based link graph might look something like this:

Outbound Links And Relevance

Outbound links going out of a website (together with inbound links) can influence whether or not a site ranks at all.

When one site links to another site, they are connected within the link graph. All of those connections form groups, sometimes called neighborhoods.

Solar System Analogy

Stay with me, because now I’m going to make analogies of how sites link together to form link graphs, beginning with how a single site is linked together with itself.

For example, the Solar System could be thought of as a website.

The website home page could be thought of as the Sun. Earth, Mars, Saturn etc. can be considered analogous of pages from that website.

So the whole Solar System can be thought of as a website, as your website.

A Website is Analogous to the Solar System

Milky Way Galaxy

The Solar System exists within the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way galaxy consists of other suns and planets.

In our analogy, the Milky Way galaxy represents all the other websites that are like your website and that are also about your same topic.

So if your site is an ecommerce site selling auto parts, all those other auto parts ecommerce sites are interconnected with your auto parts site by links from forums, blogs, product sites, manufacturer sites, review sites, etc.

The Milky Way galaxy, in our analogy example, represents all the websites on the Internet that are specifically about auto parts ecommerce. But it can also be whatever your own website topic is.

This is something to think about:

Outbound links from one site to another site create a map of the Internet by topic.

So your website and all the other websites in your niche looks like this to Google:

Analogy of Interconnected Sites on Same Topic

But… Your Niche Exists in the Greater Internet

The example site of an auto parts ecommerce store (solar system) exists within the overall topic of all the auto parts ecommerce stores on the Internet, in this example represented by the Milky Way galaxy.

The auto parts ecommerce store topic exists within a greater entity, which is the larger and more general topic of ecommerce.

The Milky Way exists as part of a cluster of other galaxies. This cluster is called the Virgo Cluster.

The Virgo Cluster is an analogy of all the sites about ecommerce.

Analogy of All Sites About Ecommerce

The Internet Link Map Reveals Topic Clusters

When search engines map the interconnections between websites, all the different topics tend to form clusters similar to how suns and planets form galaxies, including some some overlap as we’ll see in a moment.

Sites about any given topic tend to be interconnected by the similar sites that tend to link to sites about those topics.

For example, human resources-related sites tend to link to the same group of human resources related software sites and recruiting-related sites.

The Milky Way exists within the Virgo Galaxy Cluster. The Virgo Galaxy Cluster can be said to represent all the sites that are about ecommerce.

So in that Virgo Galaxy Cluster example there are groups of interconnected sites about sports ecommerce, fishing ecommerce, toy ecommerce, makeup ecommerce, and so on across all the topics that ecommerce covers.

Cluster of Super Clusters

But the Internet is bigger than ecommerce. The Internet includes the topics of politics, social media, ecommerce, travel, handbag sales, toy ecommerce, legal, entertainment, news, everything.

Staying within our analogy of the Internet as cosmos, a supercluster of galaxy clusters, where the red dots in the image below are clusters of galaxies, this is what the Internet may look to Google as a Link-based Map of the entire Internet:

Supercluster of Galaxy Clusters

All of the websites of the entire Internet arrange themselves by links into structures that can be said to resemble galaxies that represent other sites that are in the same topic.

Those galaxies can be said to exist within clusters of other topics that are related, like all the sites about ecommerce, all the sites about news, all the sites about travel, etc.

And the entire Internet can be visualized as a giant supercluster of clusters.

The above illustration is an analogy of how the Internet self-organizes itself into a gigantic link-interconnected map that self-organizes by topic.

Six Degrees of Website Separation

There is an idea that all people are six friends away from other people. A friend of a friend of a friend of a friend of a friend of a friend will ultimately lead to a connection to virtually anyone.

Whether that’s true or not is besides the point right now. What matters is that a similar thing happens with links.

The only difference with links is that there is an end point where the further  away you get from a starting point that more difference there is between the starting website where you began following links and the ending website further away.

What scientific researchers discovered is that if you begin at a starting point that you might call Expert and Authoritative, the further away you get from it the likelier it is that the site is spam.

The sites that are linked closer to the starting point tend to be more expert and authoritative and trustworthy.

That is the idea behind a type of ranking analysis called Link Distance Ranking.

Multiple scientific researchers (in and outside of Google) discovered that when you create a seed set of sites as starting points, it becomes even easier to weed out spam sites as well as more accurate at mapping out the Internet according to topic.

Link distance ranking algorithms provide a more granular level of categorization by topic to the Internet beyond the natural ordering that links provide.

Link Graphs Reveal Legit Links and Spam Links

Spam sites exist in their own cluster because that’s how the Internet naturally arranges itself by links, especially when you overlay a link mapping algorithm over the link graph.

In the early 2000s the search engines used statistical analysis to discover which linking patterns were unnatural. The sites with unnatural linking patterns were called the “statistical outliers” and those outliers were spam sites.

Later on researchers published link distance ranking algorithm research papers.

Today Google uses machine learning and AI to catch spam at the moment it discovers it when crawling and also at the point where Google places sites within the index.  The exact processes involved in Google’s spam AI are not known, we only know that artificial intelligence is used.

Internet SEO scammers claim that they can trick Google by using mind-numbingly simple tricks. But when you understand how the Internet is ordered with a link graph, those child-level strategies are seen for what they are, implausible and sadly laughable.

Links Graphs and Ranking

There is somewhat very little you can do to control who links to you. Because of how link graphs work the task of identifying spam is easier.

Knowing how link graphs and associated link graph mining technologies work helps to make sense of why Googlers are so confident about their ability to catch link spam and stop it from working.

While there is little you can do to control the creation of links to your site, there is a lot that you can do to control what your site links to.

For that reason, in my opinion, it’s a good idea to be careful to link to pages that are useful to users in the context of your content.

In the interest of user experience it’s also a good idea to scan your outbound links to be absolutely certain that there are no outbound links to insecure HTTP web pages.

There is little one can do to control who links to a site. But the sites you link to are entirely under your control. Poor outbound linking practices may send a negative signal that reflects poorly on the site and may contribute to a negative ranking influence.


Link Ranking Algorithms

What is Google’s Penguin Algorithm?

Google Fights Spam with AI

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Google: Improving 3Rd Party Metrics Won’t Boost Rankings

In a Google podcast, Search off the Record, Googlers discussing spam digressed to discuss third party metrics and their impact on Google search rankings. They observed that improving the scores of third party metrics did not result in an improvement in search rankings and suggested expanding to a wider range of factors.

This part of the discussion involved Senior Webmaster Trends Analyst for Google, John Mueller and Duy Nguyen of Google’s Search Quality Team which focuses on catching spammy sites.

Third Party Domain Authority Metrics

Many tool and data companies provide metrics that help publishers compare their websites to other websites with a convenient metric that assigns a proprietary “authority” or “ranking” score to websites.

Some of these metrics use links and traffic (among other factors) to calculate an authority or ranking score.

The purpose of these metrics is to help publishers and SEOs do competitive analysis.

There are many publishers however who use these metrics as proof of site quality and will seek links from other sites with high 3rd party authority scores in order to improve their own authority scores.

What Google makes clear is that they’ve never seen a correlation between improving those third party metrics and a positive impact in search rankings.

Third Party Metrics and Search Rankings

Google’s John Mueller began this section of the podcast by remarking that many publishers focus on factors that have zero impact on search rankings.

[00:24:35] John Mueller:

“I think it’s also, like you said, one of those things where you don’t even know if it will actually help your site.

And potentially, it’ll just harm your site and then you’re just digging a bigger hole for yourself rather than working on something positive for your website to improve things for the long run.”

[00:24:56] Duy Nguyen:

“Yeah, an example of that that we observed was web masters or else spammers tend to focus on improving one or two particular metrics that are external, that we absolutely do not use.

They, for some reason, think that if they put on a lot of time and money in improving such scores, it would perform really well on Google Search. I’ve never seen a case where that actually work well.

And I find it pretty sad… because if all that time and money were spent on building up the websites with better user experience, more functionality, writing better quality content, producing high quality images, they’d probably do a lot better on Search and obviously a lot more sustainable for the site, itself.”

[00:25:43] John Mueller:

But it feels like… sometimes I see people in the forums just saying like, “I want to improve this metric.”

They don’t really want to focus on the site overall. They’re just like, “I just want to change this number from 7 to 25.

And I’m like, “Why?” It’s doesn’t change much.”

Don’t Focus on Just One Factor

Duy Nguyen next discusses the futility of focusing on one thing (like a third party metric) at the expense of focusing on the hundreds of actual ranking factors that have an impact on search performance.

Duy explains the benefits of focusing on a wide range of performance metrics.

Duy Nguyen: [00:26:33]

“Yeah, I love data, myself. I think the more data you have, the better you would be at your role, whatever that may be. As a site owner or an online marketer, I think it’s really great to have a bunch of metrics that you monitor and measure and try to improve as long as you don’t focus on one thing.

improve more.

Or for some reason I find that nobody really discover our Contact or Support pages. Why is that? Do we have a problem there?

If people need to contact us, maybe we should just put it somewhere else, rewrite better content.

the board and would rank your site better.”

Search Rankings Depends on Hundreds of Signals

In order to improve search rankings it’s important to focus on a wide range of relevance and popularity signals.

Some publishers might focus on links but their content might lack authoritativeness.

Other publisher might focus on authoritative content but neglect to make the web pages user friendly.

Another publisher might do nearly everything right but neglect to adequately promote each article in order to encourage links.

Publishers might focus on building links but neglect to build an audience, relationships with readers, or relationships with influencers.

Sites that rank well for a limited time then bounce around between the first and second page of the search results sometimes are sites that are neglecting a certain part of site promotion, user experience, content quality or content relevance.

Sites that seem to be locked into the first position as if they owned it tend to be sites that address all aspects related to user experience, signals of popularity and topical focus.


Tackling Web Spam, Search Quality, and More!

The Psychology Behind Link Giving

The citation method of ranking indexed content is flawed. It is based on human aid, and any technology based on the work of humans is always going to have flaws. Links are the product of what elicits an emotion from website owners, and the link builder that can tap these emotions is going to be able to manipulate the most important element in search rankings.

Emotion Self-Regulation

The concept of emotional self-regulation is defined as:

being able to properly regulate one’s emotions. It is a complex process that involves the initiating, inhibiting, or modulating the following aspects of functioning

The concept is based on being able to understand the following:

4. emotion-related behavior (e.g actions or facial expressions related to emotion).

Broken down; many of our actions are guided by emotions that originally fueled by thoughts brought on by stimuli around us. These actions in turn have results, that often fuel future thoughts, and thus the cycle continues.

When looking at this concept it is important to also understand the gamut of emotions the human mind deals with. Robert Plutchik defined emotions and their polar opposites through the creation of the following wheel:

Understanding these concepts can unlock a marketers understanding of many actions of a consumer, and the same can be said for the link builder. Linking is an action, and that action can be elicited by many emotions. The most basic of these is the initiation point of the link buy. The thought of someone confronted with an offer to sell a link is “I can monetize this site I have built” and the following emotion is contentment in the material concept of payment, the action is the link. The psychology of someone giving a link can be broken down by this cycle, and by creating quality initiation points that cause Thoughts that cause desired emotions, a link builder can skillfully achieve links for any website.

The Psychology of Link Bait Joy: A Case Study

Interest: A Case Study

SEOmoz’s Search Ranking Factors is a huge link sponge in our industry. It is an impressive piece of content that evolves. This is often called “resource” based content by link baiters, and resources like any other content bring forth action based on emotion. Search marketers want to know the most important factors to focus on in their campaigns, SEOmoz initiates the thought through this content, the marketer wonders if the factors are the key they are looking for, this elicits interest, and in response they read the factors and share them on social media sites and their blogs.

Admiration/Contempt: The Double Edged Case Study

Barney Frank Confronts Woman

This piece of content is very interesting. That is because depending on political stance your opinion will change, and thus your emotion. Supporters of the healthcare plan in question felt admiration for Barney Frank for standing up to insane comparisons of Obama to Hitler. On the other hand people that did not care for the healthcare legislation felt their contempt for the concept fueled by the woman’s questions. Looking through the backlinks you will see a mixture of supporters and detractors linking.

Beyond Link Bait

This concept is why link bait captures links, but it can work for all link building. All that a builder must do is work backwards. The desired result is always a link, the builder must decide what emotion is going to achieve this action from their target, create a targeted thought process that will elicit this emotion, and a piece of content that will bring this thought into the targets mind.

A great current example of this is Invesp’s 100 Most Influential Internet Marketers campaign. Their goal is to get links from the top internet marketers in the industry. In order to get that action they want to elicit an emotion of pride. The thought that brings for this feeling is the marketer realizing “I am regarded as one of the top practitioners at what I do.” The initiation point for this is the campaign itself, and the badge that is given to winners to display their pride in the achievement.

This is obviously a much lower converting tactic as it is hard to get web owners to think your puckering up is anything more than disingenuous.

New Technologies Link Ancient Cultures

They huddle together on the playground, giggling behind clipboards, shyly rehearsing the interview questions they are about to put to their elders in a jumble of English and Choctaw. “Why did you start chanting?” “What stories did your grandmother tell you?” “What’s your favorite Choctaw dance?” For this group of students from Pearl River Elementary School, in Philadelphia, Mississippi, the interviews provide information about their tribe’s rich history they won’t find in any textbook. Moments after their interviews, the students will present their stories and digital photographs to a global audience, as part of the International Education and Resource Network’s (iEARN) First Peoples’ Project .

Editor’s Note: The Choctaw Tribal Schools no longer participate in the First Peoples’ Project. Find out about their past work and other contributions to the project .

Indigenous students on five continents share their stories, poems, photographs, and artwork, displaying them on the Internet and exchanging packages through the mail once a year. The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, which runs the largest and one of the most tech-savvy tribal school systems in the country, has participated in the First Peoples’ Project since its inception in 1997.

“We explored various science projects and a variety of directions to go with iEARN, and our kids felt more comfortable with working with indigenous people,” says Choctaw First Peoples’ Project coordinator Bob Smith. “This project prods us to research and get the kids working in areas that are significant here at home, like communicating more with their elders.”

The First Peoples’ Project has spawned the Indigenous Global Art Project and an ongoing humanitarian effort, which has raised thousands of dollars for everything from blankets to scholarships for a school in Thailand. Significant contributions to the fund have come from the Choctaw community, where gaming revenues and other economic initiatives have fueled a school-building boom and the proliferation of technology in the classroom. But “prosperity” presents a new set of challenges. “I don’t want kids to stop playing stickball or forget about traditional dancing and cooking, or speaking their own language,” says athletic instructor Jason Bell. “I hope we can influence these kids that we need to keep our culture alive for the next generation.”

By putting digital stills of their classmates dancing and playing stickball on the First Peoples’ Project Web site, these students have learned to use the newest technology to celebrate their timeless culture and share its wisdom with the rest of the world. Back on the playground, the elder smiles as he ponders the fifth grader’s question. “My favorite dance? Snake dance. You know how a snake maneuvers around? That’s how life is. Life is not always a straight road. That’s what the snake dance reminds me of.”

The First Peoples’ Project (incorporating the Humanitarian Effort), developed by students and teachers at Australia’s

Ken Ellis is executive producer ofEdutopia video.

The First Peoples’ Project (incorporating the Humanitarian Effort), developed by students and teachers at Australia’s Bairnsdale Secondary College , is coordinated through Bairnsdale under the auspices of the nation’s Department of Education, Employment, and Training, the Global Classroom Project of the Australian state of Victoria, and iEARN Australia.

How To Create A Whatsapp Group Link On Mobile And Pc

The typical way of adding people to WhatsApp groups is restrictive in nature. You cannot add people who aren’t in your contacts. That’s where adding them via group links can help. Group links can be shared with anyone, thus also increasing the reach of your group. Let’s see how to create a WhatsApp group link on Android, iPhone, and PC.

How do Group Links Work on WhatsApp

Before we jump to the steps, it’s vital to know a few important things about the WhatsApp group link.

You need to be the admin of the group to get the group link. A regular member cannot create a group link. However, if the admin has shared the group link in the group, other members can forward it.

The group link isn’t permanent. An admin can reset it anytime and create a new link. The old link will become nonfunctional.

You can share group links within or outside of WhatsApp.

WhatsApp group links can be forwarded to anyone, so be careful while sharing them. For instance, if you share a group’s link with one of your friends, they can share it with more people. Those people can join your group without any additional approval from your end.

People who join a group using its link will not be able to see the past group messages.

Create WhatsApp Group Link on Android

1. Open the WhatsApp group whose link you want to create and share. Make sure you have admin rights.

2. Tap on the group’s name at the top. You will reach the group info screen.

3. Scroll down and tap on “Invite via link” under the Participants section.

4. You will see the group link and various options related to group invites. Tap on Send link via WhatsApp if you want to share the link with your WhatsApp contacts. To share outside of WhatsApp, tap on the “Copy link” and paste it into the required app.

Alternatively, tap on the “Share link” button and select the app where you want to share the group link. You can also create a QR code for the group link. Lastly, if your group’s link has reached the hands of the wrong people, you can reset it via “Reset link.”

Create WhatsApp Group Link on iPhone

1. Open the WhatsApp group from which you want to get the group link. As mentioned previously, you have to be the group admin to get the group link.

3. You will see various group settings. Tap on the “Invite to Group via link” option at the bottom. You will be taken to the screen where you can copy, share, or reset a group link. Tap on “Share link” to send a a group link in WhatsApp or outside of it. You can also copy-paste the link in other apps or chats. Similarly, you can generate a QR code that you can print or share with others.

If you don’t want others to join your group using the link, you can disable it by tapping on “Reset link.”

Create WhatsApp Group Link on PC

1. Launch the WhatsApp web or desktop version on your computer.

2. Open the group whose link you want to generate.

Groups are one of the coolest features of WhatsApp. You can chat with multiple people at a time, send high-quality photos and videos to them, and even do group video calls. Think you know everything about WhatsApp? Check out useful WhatsApp tricks you might have missed.

Mehvish Mushtaq

Mehvish is a tech lover from Kashmir. With a degree in computer engineering, she’s always been happy to help anyone who finds technology challenging. She’s been writing about technology for over six years, and her favorite topics include how-to guides, explainers, tips and tricks for Android, iOS/iPadOS, Windows, social media, and web apps.

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Google And Nasa Buy D

Google and NASA buy D-Wave quantum computer

Google will co-invest in a quantum supercomputer lab near its Mountain View campus, exploring the potential for incredibly-fast processing tipped to run 11,000x faster at some tasks compared to a standard Intel chip. The computer itself will be manufactured by D-Wave and based at NASA’s Ames Research Center, where the Universities Space Research Association nonprofit will be responsible for its operation; Google and other companies will share access to the “D-Wave Two” hardware, which is rumored to cost around $10m.

It’s not the only time D-Wave has offered quantum technology, though that’s not to say Google’s shared machine will be one of many such installations. D-Wave sold the first quantum supercomputer to Lockheed Martin in 2010, following it up with a commercial version back in 2011.

D-Wave’s system differs considerably from the traditional path to producing a supercomputer. Usually, manufacturers piece together thousands of regular x86 chips and use complex software and hardware to get them all working together on the same problems; more recently, we’ve seen an increase in the role of more flexible GPU-based processing alongside normal CPUs.

In D-Wave’s quantum computing approach, however, a whole new chip architecture is introduced. The company calls them “Qubits” and each chip has up to 512 of them; they’re responsible for simultaneously encoding information at the quantum level as either 0, 1, or both 0 and 1 at the same time. The Qubits are hooked up using Couplers, which push a pair of Qubits to either matching or opposite states, and then programmable magnetic memory is used to guide the path of the processing.

D-Wave Qubit processing:

It’s that duality of state which helps quantum computing to be so fast, D-Wave claims. By examining all of the combinations simultaneously, the final computation comes far quicker than from a traditional processor, making it particularly suited to the sort of mass-crunching Google has a tendency to perform.

“In the D-Wave processor, the qubits can slowly be tuned (annealed) from their superposition state (where they are 0 and 1 at the same time) into to a classical state (where they are either 0 or 1). When this is done in the presence of the programmed memory elements on the processor, the 0 and 1 states that the qubits end up settling into gives the answer to a user-defined problem. All circuitry on the D-Wave processors is made from a material known as a superconductor, which is cooled to 20mK, (near absolute zero) in order for the quantum effects to manifest in the material” D-Wave

For NASA, meanwhile, the Ames team will use the D-Wave hardware to explore robotics, space mission planning, and air-traffic control. Its potential for crunching data on possible habitable planets elsewhere in the universe will also be examined; the Ames team is also responsible for the Kepler project which is hunting space for exoplanets.

20-percent of the quantum computer’s usage time will also be opened up to research projects, with teams encouraged to submit proposals for what they might do with the unusual processing power. Those selected will get free access to the supercomputer.


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