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The rise of first phones
Back in Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched a new mobile internet platform called i-mode. It provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kilobits per second, and access web services available through the platform such as online chúng tôi company’s i-mode used cHTML, a language which restricted some aspects of traditional HTML in favor of increasing data speed for the devices.
Eventually, the rise of i-mode helped NTT DoCoMo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of 2001, and ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally.
Also read: Top 10 IoT Mobile App Development Trends to Expect in 2023 The development lifecycle
Outside of the U.S. and Japan, Nokia was one company which was seeing success with its smartphones based on Symbian operating system, the most popular smartphone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s. Until 2010, Symbian remained the world’s most widely used smartphone operating system.
2011:- first smartphone with a fingerprint reader was the Motorola Atrix 4G in 2011.
2012:- Samsung introduced the Galaxy S3 with retrofittable wireless charging and pop-up video playback.
2013:- In October of 2013, Motorola Mobility announced Project Ara which was a concept for a modular smartphone platform allowing users to customize and upgrade their phones with add-on modules which could be attached magnetically to a frame.
2014:- Microsoft unveiled functionality for its Windows 10 operating system for phones.
2024:- Samsung and LG were the “last standing” manufacturers to offer flagship devices with user-replaceable batteries
2024:- Focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones.
2024:- Smartphones with fingerprint readers embedded within OLED displays were announced.
2024:- A vast number of smartphones featured more than one camera, are waterproof with IP67 and IP68 ratings, and unlock with facial recognition or fingerprint scanners.
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A company called Energous is working on a technology where one will be able to charge devices over the air. You can simply place your phone within three feet of the WattUp Mid Field transmitter and it will start charging right away.
Change colors when you want
Future could be adorned with phones where imagine a phone that has an entirely transparent back made from a glass-like material which is made in a way that it completely absorbs light. It would have one or more LED lights inside, where you could change its color in the settings of the phone.
Stretchable and Foldable displays
The next big thing in display technology is the flexible displays. There already are a handful of foldable phones like the Royole FlexPai, Samsung Galaxy Fold, and Huawei Mate X. Pertaining to this development, it may lead to a future where we may have stretchable phones. Rather than unfolding a device, in future, you would stretch it out to increase its size, just like a rubber band.
Also read: Top 7 Industrial Robotics Companies in the worldEndnotes
When the hardware components undergo a change, proportionally so does the software components. The development and type of apps also undergo a change.
The process of Android and iOS application development undergo a change. The demand and supply for type of apps also change. In the world of technology, one small factor affects every single factor intertwined with it.Albert Smith
Albert Smith is Digital Marketing Manager at Hidden Brains, a leading web & mobile app development company usa specializing in mobile & web applications, IoT, Cloud and Big Data services. He provides innovative ways to help tech companies, startups and large enterprises build their brand.
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But that doesn’t mean smartphones have no room left for innovation in 2012. Here’s a look at what phone makers might pack into next year’s models.Quad-Core Processors Arrive
Though 2011 was the year of dual-core, 2012 will bring quad-core processors to smartphones. Nvidia’s Tegra 3 processor is said to be five times faster than the dual-core Tegra 2, which debuted this year. Qualcomm, meanwhile, is planning to launch quad-core Snapdragon CPUs with speeds up to 2.5GHz, and with quad-core Adreno graphics processors for gaming.Near-Field Communication Takes Off
Near-field communication is the technology that lets you wave a phone in front of a payment kiosk in place of a credit card. To make that happen, phone makers and wireless carriers have to put NFC capabilities in their smartphones, credit card companies need to handle the transactions, and retailers must install kiosks that accept the payments. Next year, everything may finally fall into place.
Google Wallet got a head start on the pay-by-phone front this year, but it will have lots of competition in 2012. Wireless carriers have banded together on their own NFC payment plan, called Isis, and Apple is rumored to be putting NFC in future iPhones. Research in Motion has included NFC capabilities in its BlackBerry Bold 9900 and the BlackBerry Curve 9350/9360/9370. Don’t expect NFC to kill the credit card next year, but do expect plenty of retailers to accept NFC payments by year’s end.Displays With 720-Pixel HD Resolution Become Standard
The Samsung Galaxy Nexus and the HTC Rezound are among the first smartphones to boast 720p (1280-by-720-pixel) displays. Next year, 720p resolution will become the standard for high-end smartphones, and handset makers may even figure out how to fit those pixels into even smaller screens than the 4.3-inch display in the Rezound. The result should be beautiful smartphone screens whose individual pixels are impossible to tell apart.LTE Technology Everywhere Voice Control Moves In
Following the launch of Siri in Apple’s iPhone 4S, Google and Microsoft are no doubt scrambling to bring more voice controls to their respective smartphone platforms. As for Siri, there’s a slight chance that Apple will open up the virtual personal assistant to third-party apps in 2012; more likely, however, the company will expand Siri’s functionality in some fashion before the year is over.Better Phones Cost Less The Contract-Free Battle Intensifies
Even though the fight for smartphone superiority mainly involves the major wireless carriers, a separate battle is brewing on the contract-free front. Sprint’s Virgin Mobile brand and T-Mobile’s no-contract plan through Walmart are the main combatants, offering decent Android smartphones for $35 per month and $30 per month, respectively. Expect strong follow-ups to Virgin’s Motorola Triumph and T-Mobile’s Samsung Exhibit II 4G as prepaid carriers go to war.Augmented Reality Arrives
We’ve already encountered a bit of that approach in the form of Bing’s visual search, which is built right into the Windows Phone 7 platform. If you’re traveling or just exploring your own neighborhood, for instance, you can point your phone at your surroundings, and the app will show an overlay indicating historic landmarks nearby.No Big Battery Breakthroughs
While smartphones will continue to improve noticeably in processor power, screen quality, and data speeds, their battery life is likely to see only minor improvements. The major technological breakthroughs that could keep users from worrying about getting through the day are still in the laboratory, so the best hope for better battery life lies in optimization. Nvidia’s Tegra 3 processors, for instance, have a hidden fifth core that draws a small amount of battery life for basic tasks, and the Motorola Droid Razr can turn off battery-intensive functions automatically to conserve power. For now, however, the true 24-hour battery is still a dream.
Concordia University came under fire in January 2023 when a student discovered that the instructor teaching his course had died two years earlier. “HI EXCUSE ME,” the student tweeted, “I just found out the prof for this online course I’m taking *died in 2023* and he’s technically still giving classes since he’s *literally my prof for this course* and I’m learning from lectures recorded before his passing.” The university had continued listing the instructor as the professor for an art history course and relied on lectures and lesson plans completed before the instructor’s death to teach students while using assistants to grade student work and answer student questions.
This strange situation, however, raised an important question: If it’s possible to run online courses with materials from dead instructors, could we also do the same with material generated by artificial intelligence? At least with AI, the intelligence behind the screen would still be there.
Artificial intelligence is transforming education, but it remains an open question whether AI can replace live, in-person instructors entirely.The Digital Classroom
Already, classrooms are moving toward a digital future. Many companies provide software platforms that let a single instructor oversee massive numbers of students, managing their learning remotely with the help of digitized lessons and grading software. Some schools use AI to analyze and identify their students’ strengths and weaknesses in order to tailor the curriculum to their needs. So-called “adaptive assessment” programs can make homework questions easier or harder depending on individual students’ success. In such software, the program uses student performance to develop what is essentially a personalized curriculum. In that sense, this type of machine-based learning can be compared to artificial intelligence engaging students in real learning.
However, there are problems that have emerged in the digital classroom. Some studies have found that students do not engage as completely with digital learning and AI instruction as they do with real-world instruction. As a result, their performance doesn’t always measure up.
So why do students treat digitized learning differently?Where AI Doesn’t Measure Up
One of the most important differences between in-person and AI learning is that an AI instructor isn’t a real human being. Evolution has honed the human mind to respond to other humans, but when the instructor is just text on a screen—or we know it isn’t human—we don’t empathize with it the same way, or develop the same sense of engagement. Similarly, it’s difficult to imagine a computer caring about us the same way a real instructor might empathize with us and care about us. All told, this make it difficult for students to engage with a machine with the same level of involvement as a human.
Some argue, too, that robots aren’t able to inspire students the same way that a real person might. For example, in a classroom, a student might ask a challenging question that inspires the instructor to make cross-connections, go off in a unique direction, or discuss the topic in ways that are unexpected. A machine, however, can’t go off on a tangent or connect to other areas of learning and will instead answer the question in a rote way, providing information but not inspiration.
In the end, learning isn’t just about delivering facts and information. It’s about creating meaning. While machines can teach skills effectively, they have yet to develop an ability to create meaning. A machine can gather data about students, but it can’t yet understand a student holistically in order to appeal to that student, understand the student’s needs, and show how learning can be meaningful to them.Where AI Is Going Next
So, while AI isn’t going to completely replace the role of the educator anytime soon, it is going to change how educators work with students—and it might well threaten the job of teaching assistants. AI might not be able to empathize with the students, but it sure can process data and push through grades and evaluations, and computer analytics. We already use computers to mechanically grade multiple-choice quizzes, and services like Turnitin evaluate papers to search for signs of plagiarism. Even gradebooks are now digitized, calculating final grades from data inputted during the term.
In the coming years, AI will continue to take over the routine tasks of teaching. Already, some instructors have developed AI interfaces that can handle routine student inquiries, freeing instructors to focus their limited time on complex or unique student queries. In Japan and South Korea, artificial intelligence-powered robots are used in language instruction, giving students the opportunity to practice their language skills by engaging AI in chats.
Many believe that the future of AI in the classroom is as an enhanced digital assistant, proctoring tests, handling routine inquiries, providing data and supporting information, and tailoring assignments in response to student needs. But a real person will still need to be there to watch over it all.
On April 2, 2023, Google ceased support of Inbox for Gmail. If you don’t know what it is, Google developed it as an experimental Gmail with some great features. It acted as a testing ground to see what people wanted from their email clients. Inbox worked well, offering people a new way to interact with Gmail and get some new features put into the main Gmail client.
Inbox worked so well, in fact, that a lot of features (but not all) were eventually put into Gmail, after which the appeal of Inbox for Gmail waned for Google. In September 2023 Google announced they were shutting it down, with the actual closure happening in April. Despite being an experimental Gmail, people missed Inbox for Gmail, as it had a clean UI and had some features not yet put into the main Gmail branch.
While you can’t get Inbox back as it was, you can still turn your regular Gmail into an Inbox simulacrum that tries to replicate the base Inbox experience as closely as possible.How to Get Your Gmail to Look Like Inbox
The best way to do this is to install the Inbox Theme for Gmail extension. Unfortunately, it’s not a silver bullet solution, as it only supports Chrome at the moment and is only an aesthetic update. It doesn’t replicate the lost features from Inbox, just makes it look like it. However, at the time of writing, it’s honestly the best way you can get regular Gmail to look like Inbox.
As you can see from the movie on the main page, it does a good job of recapturing the look and feel of Inbox. It’s also very easy to install; just grab it like a regular extension, then reload Gmail to see the change instantly. Hopefully, as time goes on, we’ll see more of Inbox’s missing features implemented via extensions.A Similar Alternative
While you’re in the market for a more Inbox-styled Gmail, why not take a peek at what a past Inbox developer worked on?What About the Features?
Unfortunately, for now Inbox features such as the Bundles don’t seem to have an addon to add it back in. It’s best to think about the kind of features you liked in Inbox and try to replicate them in Gmail somehow. If you really can’t, consider shopping around for a new mail provider that offers a similar, if not identical, feature to the one you want.Getting in with Inbox
While Inbox for Gmail is no longer, you can edit your regular Gmail to look more like Inbox. It’s not perfect, and it’s missing a lot of the neat features that came with Inbox, but it’s perfect for those who liked the more simplistic look.
What feature of Inbox do you miss most in Gmail? Let us know below.
Simon Batt is a Computer Science graduate with a passion for cybersecurity.
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How To Make Windows 10 Icons Look Like Windows 8 Icons
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readers this month.How to bring Windows 8 icons back to Windows 10
To change your icons to Windows 8 style, you’ll first have to download Windows 8 icons pack, provided by WinAero. Extract the .rar folder to the location on your computer where you want to store your Windows 8 icons. After you download the icons, we can get to work.Step 1: Replace Windows 10 Desktop icons with Windows 8 Desktop icons
In Desktop Icon Settings, change all the icons you want to the ones you previously downloadedStep 2: Replace Windows 10 folder icons with Windows 8 folder icons
You can get the old folder icons simply by performing a couple of tasks in the Registry Editor. Here’s what you should do:
Go to Search, type regedit, and open Registry Editor
Go to the following Registry key:
Create a new subkey and name it Shell Icons (but there’s a possibility that you already have this key in your Registry)
Create new string values named 3 and 4. Set the value data of both values to the following value:
Now create the c:Icons folder and move the chúng tôi file that you extracted from the ZIP archive there
Restart the computer.Step 3: Replace Windows 10 icons for user profile with Windows 8 icons
Here is how you can change icons for folders in your user profile:
Open the “Contacts” folder ( which is probably on this address: C:UsersYour user nameContacts)
In the address bar of File Explorer add chúng tôi to the end of the current folder path and press Enter (For example, C:UsersYour user nameContactsdesktop.ini)
The Notepad document will be opened. Find the line starting with “IconResource” and add a semicolon before the IconResource word
Add a new line to the end of the file (For example, IconResource=C:UsersWinaeroDesktopIcon4sContacts.ico)
Save the file and close Notepad
Close your User Profile, and open it again to see the changesStep 4: Fix large icons problem
You might have a problem with large icons in your File Explorer. To resolve this issue, do the following:
Press Win + R on the keyboard
Type the following in the Run box and press Enter:
Untick Show thumbnails instead of icons
That would be all, you’ll now have your old icons from Windows 8 in Windows 10, and you won’t have to look at ‘ugly’ Windows 10’s icons all the time.
Speaking of icons, did you now that you can customize your PC icons according to your very own preferences? There are plenty of tools that allow you to design your own icons. If you’re interested, you can read more about these tools in this guide.
In case you’re experiencing any issues with your Windows icons, here are three guides that you can use to fix them in no time:
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For farmers, fishermen, villagers, and city dwellers across East Asia—from the Philippines to Korea—the monsoon season brings both relief and apprehension. From May through October, the vast weather system known as the East Asian Monsoon funnels moist air from over the Pacific and Indian oceans and dumps it on land. The rain nourishes rice and other crops that feed the region’s more than one billion people.
But when the monsoon deviates from type, it can bring typhoon-fueled flooding that pummels crops, or no rain at all, leaving drought-withered crops, hungry mouths, and economic losses. Such changes in the monsoon’s behavior and severity can have far-reaching consequences: over one-fifth of the world’s population falls under its influence.
To better understand the system and its potential for change, an international team of scientists is peering into its history, drilling deep beneath the ocean floor to unlock five million years’ worth of sediment—a time capsule of monsoons past.The Next 100 Years
Most ocean-drilling ships are commercial vessels that suction vast amounts of oil and gas out of the oceanic crust. In fact, every drillship from the United States is used for that purpose, except one: the JOIDES Resolution, which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and operated for scientific ocean drilling by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP).
Each year, the IODP sends the Resolution to a different part of the world to drill into the crust and extract core samples displaying layers of sediment going back millions of years. The scientists chosen for these expeditions are among the world’s elite in their fields. Each project varies in focus; the research team might be looking at climate, volcanism, earthquake activity, marine life, or other critical features of the Earth’s geologic history.
In fall 2013, the Resolution’s mission was to explore the Sea of Japan for evidence of changes in the behavior of the monsoon system. (Some countries have called for the sea’s International Hydrographic Organization–approved name to be changed to East Sea.) The eight-week expedition was led by Richard Murray, a College of Arts & Sciences professor of earth and environment, and Ryuji Tada, a paleoclimatologist and oceanographer from the University of Tokyo, Japan. The diverse international crew, which included scientists from almost every continent, wanted to more accurately assess how sensitive the monsoon system is to climate shifts.
Murray, recently named director of the NSF’s Division of Ocean Sciences, says it is likely that the monsoon system will be affected by climate change over the next 100 years. “Some areas will get drier and some wetter,” he says. “By looking at the natural system—how rapidly it changes and under what conditions—we can get a sense of what the likely scale of future changes will be.”
Alterations in the monsoon system could have a huge impact on regional water supplies, crop cycles, and the severity of typhoons. If the Asian landmass warms more quickly in the summer, even more moist air will be syphoned from over the relatively cooler oceans (because land warms faster than ocean—a key driver of the monsoon cycle).Close Quarters
Life on board the 471-foot-long Resolution is intense, with crew and scientists stationed in tight quarters, alternating 12-hour shifts. Expeditions are typically about two months long, with no days off. Scientists and technicians are only about one-third of the ship’s population; the rest are drillers, ship’s crew, and the stewards who run the galley and take care of the lodgings. Sites are chosen for drilling only after an arduous and competitive proposal process that takes about five years of scientific, engineering, and safety reviews.
To extract the core samples, the drill team lowers continuous stands of pipe to the seafloor; a drill at the end of the piping then burrows hundreds of yards down into the Earth’s crust. Because the pipe requires the ship to be fixed in one location for days or weeks at a time, the Resolution is kept in place by computer-controlled thrusters tied to a GPS and sonar navigation system.
Murray, Tada, and their team examine the core samples for a range of indicators. To discover what actually lies in the layers of sediment, Murray must separate out the chemical and isotopic signatures of dust, volcanic ash, river runoff, microbes, and plankton remains. He does this back on dry land in the BU Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, using high-tech instrumentation capable of measuring concentrations of certain chemical elements at the parts-per-trillion level. He also examines pore water squeezed out of the sediment, measuring the concentrations of metals, alkalinity, nutrient composition, and other components.
More dead plankton preserved in the sediment during a particular period may indicate increased rain in the continent’s interior—higher rainfall causes additional nutrients to flow down the Yangtze River and into the sea, feeding the plankton, which fall to the seafloor when they die. Larger grains of dust blown off the continent and into the sea suggest stronger winds during the period when that sediment layer was deposited. More dust coupled with less river runoff indicates a drier climate, while less dust and more runoff means a wetter climate.
The researchers can even tell where the jet stream was during each period; if it was primarily over southern China, it would have picked up and deposited dust that looks chemically different from, and contains different minerals than, the dust in northern China. And where the jet stream is located dictates how warm or cold the climate is. A more southerly jet stream creates a colder climate because it allows colder northern air to migrate farther south.
The work Murray and his fellow scientists are doing is also preserving a highly valuable geologic and climate record for future science. The oceanic core samples from past expeditions sit in cold storage (four degrees centigrade) in Germany, Japan, and the United States. Even core samples from 20 or 30 years ago still provide plenty of material for current research.From Dinosaurs to Space
It will take roughly five years to complete the first round of data analysis for the Sea of Japan mission. Once they have analyzed the past climate data, Murray and the other scientists from the expedition can correlate their findings with other climate records, such as that of the Earth’s atmospheric composition taken from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. The concentration of carbon dioxide trapped at different depths in these ice sheets has given climate scientists a detailed understanding of changes in carbon dioxide levels—and thus warmer and cooler periods—over tens of thousands of years.
By comparing their data with these other datasets, researchers can understand how the monsoon system fluctuates given changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature. Ice records date back tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, but the oceanic sediments date back millions of years, giving Murray and his team an opportunity to extrapolate climate shifts much farther back in time.
The result will be a far more nuanced understanding of how a complex weather system responds to variations in global temperature. This insight should prove valuable to policymakers in East Asia as they prepare to face the effects of global warming and shifting weather patterns on cities, farming and fishing communities, flood zones, and coastal communities impacted by the severity of typhoons.
During his 25 years with the program—he is a veteran of six IODP expeditions as well as other scientific drilling voyages—Murray has contributed to several crucial discoveries, from the extinction of the dinosaurs to the viability of life below the seafloor. On a 2010 Resolution voyage to the South Pacific Gyre, a rotating current that stretches from the equator to Antarctica and Australia to South America, he studied an area of the ocean with so little life that it is considered a biological desert. There, microbes on the seafloor (and up to about 100 yards below the seafloor) subsist on the bare minimum of energy provided by the extremely small amount of dead organic material that falls to the bottom of the ocean.
“We found they were subsisting on far less energy than anybody ever thought,” says Murray, who is still poring over the samples from the project with Ann Dunlea (GRS’17), an earth and environment PhD student who joined him on the mission. NASA has helped fund his research into life beneath the seafloor because of its implications for studying conditions on other planets and moons that might support life.
According to Dunlea, it isn’t just the potential impact of the research that makes the IODP voyages so rewarding.
“On the ship, there are so many scientists living in such close quarters that interesting science conversations pop up at any given moment, including while eating breakfast or working out in the ship’s gym,” says Dunlea, who was also on the fall 2013 voyage. “The ship was a perfect environment to learn a lot and make strong connections.”
A version of this story was published in the fall 2014 edition of arts&sciences.
Jeremy Schwab can be reached at [email protected].
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