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If you ever use pipes and redirections under your Linux shell, chances are you will also sometimes need to make use of the tee utility.What Does Tee Do?
A command such as
will display the contents of your current directory. In other words, it displays these contents to stdout (standard output), which is normally your screen, or to be more precise, your virtual terminal display.
A command like
To display the contents of your directory on the screen and write this to a file, you use two commands. With tee you can do both of these things at once.
Another situation, often encountered, when you might need tee, is this: you want to write the output of a command to a location where only the root user can read or write. This won’t work.
The first thing to know is that tee, by default, always overwrites a file. If you run
Permission denied messages are written to stderr. The only thing written to stdout is the highlighted text. That’s why you will notice that the contents of “somefile” are what is shown in the below image.Conclusion
Fell in love with computers when he was four years old. 27 years later, the passion is still burning, fueling constant learning. Spends most of his time in terminal windows and SSH sessions, managing Linux desktops and servers.
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You're reading How To Use The Tee Command In Linux
The good thing about Linux is that you can easily view and manage everything, from the boot process to the installation of software packages. Here we discuss how you can use the lsof command in Linux to view open files and the processes using them. Knowing how to view this can help you understand how the system works and even take the necessary actions for specific processes.Lsof Command
To view open files and the users or processes responsible for them, we use the lsof utility. By default, lsof is pre-installed in most distributions.
However, if you do not have it installed, you can use the package manager to install it on your system.Debian/Ubuntu
On Debian, run the command:
apt-get installlsof Arch/Manjaro
On Manjaro and other Arch-based distributions, use pacman by running the command:
For CentOS and the REHL family, you can use dnf:
installlsof Use lsof Command to List Open Files for a Linux Process
Like most Linux commands, the lsof utility is incredibly simple to use. Start by typing the command lsof:
Once you run the command above, lsof should return information about the open files in the system.COMMAND PID TID TASKCMD USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE
/OFF NODE NAME init
1root cwd DIR
1root rtd DIR
1root txt REG
1root 0u CHR
1root 1u CHR
1root 2u CHR
1root 3w CHR
1root 4u sock
22689protocol: AF_VSOCK init
1root 5r REG
1root 6r REG
1root 7r DIR
1root 8u DIR
1root 9u sock
Note: if you have sudo privileges, run the command with sudo to avoid “permission denied” errors on specific files.
As shown in the output above, the lsof output has the following columns:
ColumnRepresentationCommandShows the name of the process using the target file.PIDThe unique identifier for the process using the file.TIDThe column shows the thread identifier.TASKCMDThe name of the task command.USERUsername or UID of the user running the process.FDFile descriptor of the file and modes.TYPENode associated with the target file.DEVICEDevice number separated by chúng tôi size in bytes of file offset sizeNODEInode value of the local file. You can use the stat command to show inode information for the file.NAMEMount point of the file.
Now that you understand what the contents of the lsof command printout represent, let us use the command to filter for specific information.How to Filter for Specific Process
To filter for only specific files opened by the specific process, we can use either the process name or the PID value.
For example, to show files used by the firefox process, we can use the command:
The command will show all the files opened by the firefox process.
To filter by process ID, we can use the -p option and pass the process ID. You can use the top command to get the process ID of the target process.
For example, to get the PID of the firefox process, we can use the command:
The above command will print the files opened by the process with the PID specified.How to Filter for a Specific User
To view only the files opened by a specific user, we can use the -u flag. For example, to filter for the Debian user, use the command:
-udebian How to Filter for a Specific File
Suppose you only want to know the process and the user who opened a specific file. To do this, pass the name of the file to lsof:
The above will only filter for the specific file and return the related information, including the user, process ID, and more.Wrapping Up
In this simple tutorial, we discussed how to query the system for information about open files using the lsof command in Linux. Here are some additional commands for you to list the content of a directory in the terminal.
John is a technical writer at MTE, when is not busy writing tech tutorials, he is staring at the screen trying to debug code.
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The cd command is a crucial tool for accessing the file system by altering the current working directory when using the Linux command line interface. You can navigate between directories and access files and directories on your Linux system by learning how to use the cd command. We’ll go through how to use the cd command correctly in this post and examine all of its features.Prerequisites
A system running a Linux distribution.
You should have a non-root user on an Ubuntu 22.04 server with Sudo permissions in order to finish this tutorial.
Access to the terminal window or command line
Read our basic server setup guide to find out how to accomplish this configuration.How to Use the Linux cd Command
Change Directory is the meaning of the cd command using terminal. Cd, one of Linux’s most basic commands, is now used everywhere to change folders. There are also several other command implementations available, like chdir for MS-DOS platforms.Fundamental Syntax
The basic syntax for the cd command is:cd [options] [path]
In the command above:
Uses the cd command when entered.
[options]: Including options modifies how the command operates.
[directory]: The directory’s path where you want to move to.
In its most basic form, cd will transport you to your home directory when invoked without any arguments.
You can use the Tab key to have the names of directories autocomplete while traversing the file system. It is not required to conclude the directory name with a slash. You need to have executable permissions on a directory in order to switch to it.
To display the full path of your current directory, enter the following command:pwd Absolute and Relative Path Names
Both absolute and relative path names can be used to identify a directory to change to. The full or absolute path begins at the system root /, while the relative path begins in the current directory.
Using its absolute path, you can access the same directory as well:
Simply put, the absolute path to the directory is one that begins with a slash (/).To easily go to different directories without having to write the entire pathname, Cd keeps track of which directories are above and below the current directory.
Use the ls command to list down every directory in that folder if you are confused of the exact name of the subdirectory you wish to go to.Go to the Parent Directory
The letters .. and. stand for the parent directory and the current directory, respectively.
Switch to the parent directory by using the double-dot character (..).cd ..
Moving two levels up from your current working directory:cd ../../
A specific directory can also be supplied that is one level above the the working directory at present.cd ../../ To Change the Previous Working Directory
The – (hyphen) character makes it simple to return to the previous working directory while working with many directories at once.
If your current working directory is /home and you change to /root, as an illustration. Then the working directory will change to /root, and the working directory before that was /home.
You can return to the previous directory, /home, by typing the following command.cd -
Additionally, using the cd command and then a space will return the user to their previous working directory.cd Switch to the Home Directory
The /home directory is a particular location on a Linux system designated for a user’s private documents, applications, and subfolders. The home directory is automatically configured as the current working directory when you log in to your system.
The ~ (tilde) character has been designated as a special character for the home chúng tôi the cd command, you can simply pass the ~ character to change the current working directory to /home rather than entering the full path to your home directory (/home/username).cd ~
You can follow these steps to navigate to another user’s home directory.cd ~username
We changed the current working directory to /Desktop in the previous section. You can reduce the size of the command to half by using the character to indicate the /home directory.cd ~/Desktop Navigate to the Root Folder
The / character in a Linux-based operating system stands for the /root directory, just like the home directory. The root folder can be reached at any time by:cd / Make the switch to a directory name with spaces
Your computer’s folder names won’t all be single words. The character “space” may be present in some of them. as in /home/username/Important Documents.
The directory name will not be specified in such cases, and an error will be returned.cd /Important Documents output bash: cd: too many arguments
Use quotes around the pathname to change to directories that have spaces in their names. Please take note that the command supports both single and double quotes.cd 'Important Documents' cd "Important Documents" cd Important Documents Changing Directory and List Content
To switch to a new directory and list its contents at the same time, add the ls command to the cd command using the && flag.cd [path to directory] && ls
Using the above example:cd Example_Directory && ls Autocomplete Directory Name
The Linux terminal doesn’t have autocomplete by default. You can install and configure bash-completion package and use the autocomplete feature. If you don’t know the name of the directory you’re trying to move to you can press press the Tab key on your computer following the command.cd X[Tab] Conclusion
Windows Defender, no known as Windows Security, is the default antivirus software in Windows 10 and Windows 11, and is no less capable than any third-party antivirus software. In fact, when it comes to system resource usage, Windows Defender is one of the best. Though the Windows Defender GUI is pretty easy to use, you can also use the Windows Defender via command prompt. This is especially useful when you are creating your own scripts or scheduled tasks.
The Windows Defender command line lets you do all the basic things like performing different types of scans, listing and restoring quarantined files, adding dynamic signatures and removing or updating the virus definitions. This article will show you how to use Windows Defender from the command prompt.Use Windows Defender from Command Prompt
If you’ve ever used Windows Defender GUI, you will know that it has three scan types. Below are some quick explanations of what those different scan types mean.
Quick Scan: As the name suggests, Quick Scan is fast and only looks in the most common places like registry keys and start-up folders where the malware or virus could have an affect. Typically, Quick Scan is completed in minutes. In the command line Quick Scan is denoted by -ScanType 1.
Full Scan: Full scan performs an in-depth scan on your entire system. Depending on how many files you have in your system, the scan can take hours to complete. In the command line Full Scan is denoted by -ScanType 2.
Custom Scan: Custom scan lets you perform an in-depth scan on a specific drive, folder, or file. In the command line, Custom Scan is denoted by -ScanType 3 and has additional switches to tell what file or folder to scan.
If you want to perform a quick scan, you can use the below command.
For a full scan, simply replace 1 in the above command with 2.
To perform a quick scan, use the below command while replacing “D:FolderPath” with the actual folder or file path you want to scan.
Windows Defender also has another scan type that scans the system boot sector for any infections. A boot sector virus infects the Master Boot Record which in turn infects the entire system when you boot up the system. To perform a boot sector scan, use the below command.
To cancel the scan, simply press the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + C.
When Windows Defender finds a threat, it moves it to the Quarantine so that it doesn’t infect your system. However, false positives can happen, and if you think Windows Defender moved a legitimate file to Quarantine, you can restore it quite easily. First, use the below command to list all the Quarantined Files.
From the list, identify the file and note its name. Next, execute the below command while replacing “FileName” with the actual file name you want to restore. If the command is executed successfully, the file restores to its original location.
In general, Windows Defender automatically updates itself with latest antivirus definitions. However, if you want to make sure Windows Defender is up to date, execute the below command.
If you’re testing apps or doing a bit of scripting, then you may want to see how Windows interacts with the latest security updates as well as those from the previous Windows update. Using the command prompt, you can remove (and then restore security definitions.
Note: We strongly recommend you restore the definitions to the latest ones after removing them so your PC stays protected against the latest threats.
With that in mind, here’s how to roll back your virus definitions:
To restore definitions to the default ones or those stored in the last backup copy (automatically created by Windows when updating to the latest ones), enter this command:
You can also remove only the dynamically downloaded security signatures using this command:
Once you’re done dallying around removing security definitions, it’s time to restore them with this command:
That is it. As you can see, the Windows Defender command-line options are quite user-friendly and easy to use. For more Windows tips see how to fix the Windows 11 snipping tool, which is known to have some problems. Also, we explains the ins and outs of TrustedInstaller, and whether you really need it.
Content Manager at Make Tech Easier. Enjoys Android, Windows, and tinkering with retro console emulation to breaking point.
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Introduction to MySQL Binlog
MySQL Binlog is a binary log, which consists of all the modifications that happen in the database. All the details are written in the server in binary format. To read the contents in the file, we use the “mysqlbinlog” utility. The Binary log is helpful in MySQL replication, where the main server will send data from binary logs to the remote servers. When we perform operations like creating the table or updating the data from the existing table, these event details are stored in the binary logs.
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In this session, let us see in detail the binary log and how it works in MySQL.
We use below the syntax to see all the binary logs: –
SHOW BINARY LOGS;/* - - here we are updating the row - - */
Below is the syntax we use to read the contents of the binary logs.MySQL Binary Log
Below are a few options:
Debug: This option is used to write a debugging log.
Debug-Check: This option prints the debugging information when the program exits.
Start-DateTime: This option is used to read binary logs. Get data when the timestamp is equal to or later than the DateTime argument specified in the command.
Start-Position: This option is used to decode the binary log. Decode from the first event with a position equal to or greater than the argument specified in the command.
Stop-DateTime: This option is used to stop reading binary logs. Stop reading from the first event with a timestamp equal to or greater than the datetime argument specified in the command.
Stop-Never: This option is used to stay connected to the server after reading the last binary log file.
Stop-Never-Slave-Server-Id: This option makes the slave server ID report when connecting to the server.
Stop-Position: This option stops decoding binary logs at the first event with a position equal to or greater than the argument specified in the command.
To-Last-Log: This option is used when you want to not stop at the end of the requested binary log from a MySQL server and continue printing to the end of the last binary log.
User: This option checks the MySQL user name for connecting to the server.
Verbose: Reconstruct row events as SQL statements
Verify-Binlog-Checksum: This option is used to verify checksum from the binary log.
Version: This option is used to display version information and exit.How Does MySQL Binary Log Work?
Show BINARY LOGS
Now let us create a table and perform an update on the table and see the binary log creation in the server.
Insert data into the table:
INSERT INTO DATA_034 VALUES (6, ‘Hammington’, ‘Italy’);
Update the table row as below:
update data_034 set location='Rome' where id=6;/* - - here we are updating the row - - */
Now we have changed the binary log name, which is available in the
“c:ProgramDataMySQLMySQL Server 8.0my.ini” to “Binarylog-bin.000001”
SHOW BINARY LOGS; /* - - to show all the binary logs files - - */
Let us read the binary log and see the output: –
To read, we use the mysqlbinlog utility: –
The table consists of the following rows in it: –
id Name Location
1 Rose United Kingdom
2 Jack India
3 Will Britain
4 Bentley USA
5 Sam Rome
67 Hammington Rome
Here update the table below: –
update data_034 set id=67 where id=6; /* - - here we are updating the row - - */
Below let us get the last log that performed as in the above we are not able to read the binary log: –
/* – – to view the logs in the readable format – – */
Below is the data present in the table after the update: –
id Name Location
1 Rose United Kingdom
2 Jack India
3 Will Britain
4 Bentley USA
5 Sam Rome
6 Hammington Rome
Display content in a user-friendly manner:
mysqlbinlog “C:ProgramDataMySQLMySQL Server 8.0DataBinarylog-bin.000001”
Screenshot for the same:
To display the Events that Happened in a Particular Database:
mysqlbinlog -databasecrm“C:ProgramDataMySQLMySQL Server 8.0DataBinarylog-bin.000001”
Screenshot for the Same:
To Control the Binlog Output:
The output can be controlled based on the possible values provided. They are: –
This will work when there is no event occurring in “row_level”.
mysqlbinlog --base64-output=never "C:ProgramDataMySQLMySQL Server 8.0DataBinarylog-bin.000001"
This will display only the BINLOG entries whenever possible.
mysqlbinlog --base64-output=always "C:ProgramDataMySQLMySQL Server 8.0DataBinarylog-bin.000001"
mysqlbinlog --base64-output=decode-rows "C:ProgramDataMySQLMySQL Server 8.0DataBinarylog-bin.000001"
mysqlbinlog --base64-output=auto"C:ProgramDataMySQLMySQL Server 8.0DataBinarylog-bin.000001"Conclusion – MySQL Binlog
MySQL Binlog is a binary log, which consists of all the modifications that happen in the database. All the details are written in the server in binary format. To read the contents in the file, we use the “mysqlbinlog” utility. The Binary log is helpful in MySQL replication, where the main server will send data from binary logs to the remote servers. When we perform operations like creating the table or updating the data from the existing table, these event details are stored in the binary logs.Recommended Articles
We hope that this EDUCBA information on “MySQL Binlog” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.
The Warp Tool in Photoshop is an excellent tool for portrait and commercial photography, although you can use it on any image or image elements, such as text and shapes. The tool manipulates the image or an object in a photo by warping it. You can produce creative or corrective results when you know how to use this tool.
There are various types of warping tools in Photoshop, such as the Puppet Warp Tool, Perspective Warp, or the one you will learn about today, the Transform Warp. Each tool has its own strengths, and the Transform Warp best suits minor corrections and simple warp adjustments. However, you should know the settings and controls to get the most out of this feature.What Is The Warp Tool In Photoshop?
The Warp Tool is a feature in Photoshop which allows you to warp an image in multiple ways. Once the tool is active, a grid appears over the image or a part of the image. You can then manipulate the image by pulling on the anchor points or handles.
You can warp the image manually by dragging the anchor points where you’d like them to go. When the tool is active, you can also distort the image based on preset shapes available from the Options bar.
Once the tool is active, you can change the settings for more control and warp your image using the anchor points and handles.
The limitation of the Warp Tool is that you can’t use it on a background or locked layer. Select a normal layer or duplicate your background layer to use the tool.
In the most basic sense, the Warp Tool is helpful for manual image corrections, manipulating the look of elements, or even slimming subjects in a photo.Warp Tool Settings Explained
Once you have activated the Warp Tool, you can adjust various settings to ensure you can warp the image exactly how you intend to.The Warp Grid Settings
The warp grid settings enable you to choose how many control points you want on the image. The more control points and grid lines you have, the more you can isolate areas of the image to warp.
Select the drop-down menu next to Grid to choose from the options.
Initially, the Default grid (1×1) is added to the image, with two vertical and two horizontal gridlines in the Rule of Thirds shape.
You can also add a 3×3, 4×4, or 5×5 preset grid. Each preset adds more gridlines to the image, adding more control points for you to use. The extra gridlines also control how much of the image you can warp, isolating certain areas.
3×3 Grid 4×4 Grid 5×5 Grid
You can also set a custom grid setting if none of the preset grids work for your image. Select Custom from the drop-down menu to do this.
When the Custom grid Size dialogue box opens, add in the number of columns and rows you want your grid to have. For instance, I want to add seven columns and seven rows.
You can warp the image in isolated areas when there are more grids. For instance, when I slightly distort the woman’s chin and eye, only those areas are affected, while the rest of the image remains untouched. You can see where I warped the mesh in those areas and nowhere else.
Adjusting the grid settings enables you to make minor adjustments to images, especially portrait photos, without distorting the subjects unnaturally. This method is often used to slim subjects of an image and to emphasize certain features. You can also change the grid settings to warp isolated areas on an image.
Before AfterWarp Split Settings
You can customize the grid mesh even more precisely if the presets or custom grids don’t work. The warp split settings enable you to add gridlines exactly where you need them. There are three settings for you to use in the Options bar. The settings are from left to right, Split the Warp Crosswise, Split the Warp Vertically, or Split the Warp Horizontally.
You can also hold in Control (Win) or Command (Mac), and the Crosswise gridlines appear where your mouse is on the image.
The new gridline and one extra vertical gridline are added on either side.
The warp split settings are perfect for creating a custom mesh for your image.Warp Preset Options
There are several warp-presets you can use on your image, text, or shape elements. These options warp the elements into preset shapes, giving you a quick warping solution if you don’t need to have too much control over the warp.
You can find the preset warp options by opening the drop-down menu next to Warp in the Options bar.
You can test several preset options to see which fits your image or element best. The preset options are best suited for warping text and shapes. However, some preset options work well on images, too, whether you are creating a fish-eye appearance or using the photo creatively.
Here are a few of the presets in action on the image of lavender plants in a field.
Arc Fish-eye Twist Bulge
If the preset option you’ve chosen almost creates the look you are after, but it’s not quite perfect, you can alter it. Add warp splits as described in the previous section and further distort the warp as needed.How To Use The Warp Controls
Once you’ve activated the Warp Tool, the mesh grid contains the controls you need to distort to warp the image. There are a few ways to distort the image or element using these controls, so it’s a good idea to know all the ways you can use them.
Once you have activated the tool and chosen the settings for your project, you can begin using the warp controls.
The grid settings you choose determine how many control points you have on the mesh. For instance, I have selected the 4×4 grid for the photo.
Once you distort an area, two handle points appear on the line.
As shown previously, you can distort the image using any handles.How To Warp An Image In Photoshop
While the technique of using the warp feature is the same whether you are warping text, an image, or shapes in Photoshop, there are different things to consider. Here is how to warp an image. In my photo, I want to create a fish-eye effect on the water level to curve it upwards without affecting the kayak.
Once your image is open in Photoshop, duplicate the image layer to unlock it and to see the difference between the warped image and the original later. Select your background layer and press Control + J (Win) or Command + J (Mac).
I recommend you then convert the new image layer to a Smart Object. This step allows you to quickly re-open the warp settings and reset or adjust the warp even after you’ve added additional edits to the image.
You will notice an icon in the image’s thumbnail, which shows that the layer is now a Smart Object.
Once the tool is active, you can choose your settings based on the guidelines in the earlier section. For my image, I want to keep the grid on Default so I can distort the entire water line.
As you can see, the kayak has also been pulled up and looks unrealistic. To fix this issue, I will select the Split the Warp Horizontally icon.
Then add a new guideline on the water line, select the split warp option again and place another guide on the tip of the kayak. These guides create an isolated area between these two areas.
You can see how the kayak is distorted without affecting the new waterline.
Now, if I want to make the mountain range slightly more prominent, I can continue editing. To isolate the mountain range without affecting the edits I’ve already created, I must select the Split the Warp Crosswise icon in the Options bar.
Add the new guide onto the mountain range to isolate the area.
Your image is now successfully warped. Since you converted the layer to a Smart Object, if you re-open the Warp Tool, the mesh grid will be how you left it, and you can continue editing from where you left off.
Before AfterHow To Warp Text In Photoshop
Warping text works slightly differently from an image since your text is on an isolated layer. Here is how to warp text. First, add your text to the canvas using the Type Tool (T) and choose the font, color, and size in the Options bar.
Now, you can do basic warps on the text on its original layer. However, to fully use the Warp Tool, you need to Rasterize the text layer or convert it to a Smart Object. I recommend converting the layer to a Smart Object as this enables you to edit the text even after warping it, and the Smart Object preserves the quality of the text.
Then, activate the Warp Tool by pressing Control + T (Win) or Command + T (Mac) and select the Warp icon in the Options bar.
You can adjust the settings in the Options bar or begin warping using the Default mesh grid. You can also create a quick warp using the Warp Preset Options.
I wanted to match the waterline and create a wave-like warp at the top of the text, so I adjusted it as follows. As you can see, I dragged the gridlines, anchor points, and control handles in various directions to create the unique warp.
Your text is now warped.
Once you have rewritten the text and changed the size, color, or other edits, you need to press Control + S (Win) or Command + S (Mac) to save the edits.
You can close the tab, and the text is updated when you return to the original tab.How To Warp Shapes In Photoshop
You can also warp shapes in Photoshop, similarly to the text method. Add your shape to the canvas using a Shape Tool (U) and set the color as you’d like it.
Open the Warp Tool by pressing Control + T (Win) or Command + T (Mac) and select the Warp icon in the Options bar.
Change the settings and begin warping the shape in the same manner as the previous section. For my image, I wanted to match the water line and create a unique shape along the water, so I adjusted the shape as follows. I also added extra grids using the Split the Warp Horizontally option.
You can now edit the shape by opening the Smart Object as explained in the text section, adding blend modes, or adding other elements to your project along with your warped image, text, and shape.
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