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There are countless errors and bugs that you may stumble across when using Windows 10, error code 0x80070091 being one of the least common but most annoying. Generally, there are two situations this error is triggered, the first being during the Windows System Restore process. The second being on odd occasions when trying to delete folders. Regardless of when and how you receive this error message, these are the steps you need to follow to fix it.

How to Fix Windows Getting Stuck on the Loading/Getting Ready Screen.

The Windows System Restore tool is an invaluable feature that can save you tons of time and heartache if you need to wind your system back to a previous state. Unfortunately, the System Restore feature can fail, often displaying error 0x80070091, for example, during a system restore, you will most likely see the following error message:  

You may also see an error message like the one below when you are trying to delete folders from your computer:

Error 0x80070091: The directory is not empty.

Generally, you will see these error messages if there is a problem with your hard drive, so running a disk check should help fix the issue.

Fix Error 0x80070091 By Running the ‘chkdsk’ Command.

Now we have established that a possible cause for Error 0x80070091 is an issue with the disk, below is a method you can use to run a disk check which should resolve the error.

First, Press Win + X and select Command Prompt (make sure to it run as Admin)

Next, enter the following command into CMD: chkdsk /f /r C:

Note: If the folder is on a different disk drive, like D, E or F, You will need to replace C with that drive letter. For example, chkdsk /f /r D:)

After executing this command, you may be asked to give it permission. To do this, press Y then press Enter.

Once the check has completed, you should no longer receive error 0x80070091.

Boot Windows Into Safe Mode.

If the above method failed to fix the issue for you, you can try to delete the folder or perform a System Restore in Safe Mode. If you don’t know how to find Safe Mode on Windows 10, this guide will show you how: 5 Ways to Find the Advanced Startup Menu in Windows 10. If deleting the folder or performing a System Restore in Safe Mode still failed to fix the issue, you can try the final solution below.

Rename the ‘WindowsApps’ Folder to Fix Error 0x80070091.

If you encounter this error message: Destination: %ProgramFiles%WindowsApps it means there is an issue with something in the C:Program FilesWindowsApps directory stopping Windows system restore from completing. Deleting or renaming this folder will fix error 0x80070091, unfortunately deleting or renaming this folder is quite a process, so make sure you follow the steps closely.

First, go to C:Program Files. (If you have installed windows on another drive go to that location instead)

It may take a moment to change the ownership.

You should now be able to see your username or Microsoft account email address in permission entries.

Search for your username and add it, like the above step.

Next, from the Permission Entries, change your user permissions and give it full access.

Then, boot your computer back into Safe Mode and go to C:Program Files and rename the WindowsApps to chúng tôi .

That should have completely fixed error 0x80070091.

You're reading How To Fix Error 0X80070091 During System Restore And Folder Deletion.

Fix: Netlogon Folder Doesn’t Replicate

FIX: NETLOGON folder doesn’t replicate






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One of the best ways an IT Administrator can organize your company’s users, computers and more is through the use of an Active Directory. It organizes your company’s complete hierarchy from which computers belong on which network.

This ranges from meaningless things such as what your profile picture looks like to more complex matters such as which users have access to a certain file.

However, things don’t always go as planned with Active Directories, as some users have reported having issues with certain folder replications:

I’ve found that NETLOGON folder content is not replicated correctly across them

Thankfully enough, users went into further details as to how the issue manifested itself, and a solution was quickly figured out. If you too are having similar issues, continue reading the article below for a step-by-step guide on how to fix the issue.

How do I make the NETLOGON folder replicate properly?

You first have to identify which folder has the latest contents, or which folder which has scripts that run without issues.

You then take that Domain Components and declare it as Master while the other Domain Components are declared as Slaves, and then you just program a replication from Master to Slave.

1. Perform a non-authoritative synchronization

Download and install the ADSIEDIT.msc tool

In the chúng tôi tool modify the following distinguished name (DN) value and attribute on each of the domain controllers that you want to make non-authoritative:

CN=SYSVOL Subscription

CN=Domain System Volume


OU=Domain Controllers


1.1 Force Active Directory replication throughout the domain.

Run the following command from an elevated command prompt on the same servers that you set as non-authoritative:


You will see Event ID 4114 in the DFSR event log indicating SYSVOL is no longer being replicated.

On the same DN from Step 1, set:


Expert tip:

Run the following command from an elevated command prompt on the same servers that you set as non-authoritative:


You will see Event ID 4614 and 4604 in the DFSR event log indicating SYSVOL has been initialized. That domain controller has now done a “D2” of SYSVOL.

Don’t have Active Directory on Windows Server? Check out this detailed guide for more information.

2. Perform an authoritative synchronization

In the chúng tôi tool, modify the following DN and two attributes on the domain controller you want to make authoritative:

CN=SYSVOL Subscription

CN=Domain System Volume


OU=Domain Controllers



Modify the following DN and single attribute on all other domain controllers in that domain:

CN=SYSVOL Subscription

CN=Domain System Volume



2.1 Force Active Directory replication throughout the domain and validate its success on all DCs

Start the DFSR service set as authoritative

You will see Event ID 4114 in the DFSR event log indicating SYSVOL is no longer being replicated

On the same DN from Step 1, set:


2.2 Force Active Directory replication throughout the domain and validate its success on all DCs

Run the following command from an elevated command prompt on the same server that you set as authoritative:


You will see Event ID 4602 in the DFSR event log indicating SYSVOL has been initialized.

That domain controller has now done a “D4” of SYSVOL.

Start the DFSR service on the other non-authoritative DCs.

You will see Event ID 4114 in the DFSR event log indicating SYSVOL is no longer being replicated on each of them

Modify the following DN and single attribute on all other domain controllers in that domain:

CN=SYSVOL Subscription

CN=Domain System Volume



Run the following command from an elevated command prompt on all non-authoritative DCs:



By following these steps you should be able to now make all folders withing the Active Directory’s Domain Components replicate themselves properly without any further issues.

Note: This guide is targeted towards those that have experience modifying Active Directory settings. If you are unsure how to follow these steps, better leave it to the experts.


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How To Fix Photoshop Error

If you are trying to launch Photoshop but are getting the following error message – Could not initialize Photoshop because an unexpected end-of-file was encountered. A common error that is usually linked to corruption in your Photoshop preferences. Don’t worry this isn’t something that you may have accidentally caused.

Related: How to fix Peace EQ not working on Windows 10 & 11.

Errors in Adobe software are some of the most common and annoying problems you’ll encounter when using any piece of software under the Adobe umbrella. Photoshop, Premiere Pro, After Effects, Illustrator, etc. Even if you stick to the basics when using your computer and Adobe software and don’t really change anything, Adobe programs have a tendency to corrupt themselves. For example, everything can and will be working perfectly with Photoshop or another program, then after a restart, it won’t launch.

A classic example of this is Photoshop error – “Could not initialize Photoshop because an unexpected end-of-file was encountered” Most of the time this error occurs it comes out of nowhere and catches people off guard. To add insult to injury, it doesn’t even give any hints about the actual cause of the problem or a potential fix. That said, it is a relatively easy error to solve. However as this error is linked to Photoshop Preferences, you’re probably not going to like to know that it will reset all your preferences to default. Sadly this is an unavoidable part of the solution.

How do you fix Photoshop error – Could not initialize Photoshop because an unexpected end-of-file was encountered.

In order to solve this problem, you need to be aware that you are going to lose all of your preferences. Photoshop will essentially be reset to clean install defaults. There’s no way around it, unfortunately.

To begin, open File Explorer and navigate to the following location:


Once you get to this location find the Adobe Photoshop folder and delete it.

As soon as you delete the Adobe Photoshop folder you can launch Photoshop again without any problems. However, you will have to reconfigure everything again. It will revert back to a clean installation.

If you are using macOS you can follow the same process however you will obviously need to go to a slightly different location in order to find the folder.

Another very common Adobe error

Another super annoying Adobe error that you may come across when using Photoshop or just about any other bit of Adobe software is – chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi was not found. This error is linked to Windows updates and will break all Adobe software. Thankfully, there is a really easy solution for this problem which you will find below. Although you may not need this guide now, keep this location handy in case you do need it, which you probably will at some stage.

How to fix Premiere Pro chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi was not found.

How To Fix “System Battery Voltage Is Low”?

Sometimes, you may find your boot screen gets stuck with an error message “System Battery Voltage is Low” waiting for you to press the F1 key to continue.

This generally happens when the BIOS has difficulty fetching the hardware information from the CMOS. It can be caused by a depleted or faulty CMOS battery or a faulty sensor.

Whatever the causes, in this guide, we are going to provide workable fixes to get your system rid of this error.

A small battery powers the CMOS chip that stores the BIOS information for a system startup. This battery is not perpetual; its voltage can get low over time. This causes the system to be unable to connect with the CMOS chip and cannot load the boot information. As a result, it shows the error.

As the issue is related to the CMOS and BIOS, changing the battery or making some changes in the BIOS setting should solve the issue.

So, let’s not delay anymore and get into fixing the “System Battery Voltage is Low” error right away.

Sometimes, the BIOS information may get corrupted due to the installation of incompatible hardware, power failure, or Power-On-Self-Test (POST) errors. As a result, the BIOS may not be able to recognize the components or receive the boot information properly, causing the error.

So, resetting the BIOS settings should fix the problems in most cases. Let’s go through the way to reset BIOS settings to default.

See if the problem goes away.

The system event log (SEL) in BIOS consists of the power, temperature, failure, and diagnostics events during boot. Resetting BIOS does not clear SEL. So, if the memory allotted for storing the log files gets filled, or the SEL experiences some errors, then the issue of low system voltage may arise.

Clearing the system event log frees up the space and can fix the file solving the problem. But all the computers may not have access to the system event log in BIOS. So, if your system’s BIOS provides the function, let’s see the way to clear SEL.

Inspect whether the problem is still there.

This error can mostly occur if the CMOS battery gets affected by some means. The battery might have become loose, or it may actually have gotten low in power. The CMOS battery sensor operates between 2.6 to 2.9 V. And the system will continuously show the error if the battery voltage gets below it.

If that is the case, removing and reinstalling or replacing the CMOS battery will fix the issue. Let’s move on to checking the CMOS battery and reinstalling it.

Check if the error has now gone away.

Normally, reinstalling the battery resets the CMOS and BIOS settings. But if you perform the operation within a few seconds, then the residual power of the capacitors prevents the CMOS from getting erased. Furthermore, some modern systems may have soldered CMOS battery. In such a case, you can reset the BIOS or CMOS using a jumper.

A jumper is a small plastic connector that acts as a switch to short any circuit. It is available in most desktop motherboards in 2-pin or 3-pin switches. Here are the ways to use a jumper to reset the CMOS.

You should find your CMOS cleared and the “system battery voltage is the low” issue solved. However, we do not recommend doing this on a laptop as it does not have a jumper. And, it requires a steady hand and knowledge to short the circuits in the laptop without a jumper.

Surge Protector

A surge protector prevents voltage fluctuation in any electronic system. But if the surge protector is damaged by some means or you are using a cheaper one, it may not work properly. As a result, your system might not be protected, causing the issue. It may even have damaged the CMOS sensor.

You should check whether the surge protector is functioning well and providing stable voltage. Most surge protectors have a green and red LED to indicate their state. If you have a green LED turned on, then it is working well. The surge protector may be faulty if the red LED or no LED is turned on. However, the LEDs may not always show the state accurately.

If you find some faults in it, you can get an optimum surge protector for your system.

Similarly, some new hardware or cables can also cause this issue. If the error started after making such changes, try removing them to see whether the issue goes away.

BIOS update fixes a lot of issues related to CMOS and BIOS firmware. If the system’s low battery voltage issue arose due to some bug in BIOS, then updating it can do the trick.

However, updating BIOS is a risky endeavor, and you have to take important precautions before doing it. We have prepared a comprehensive guide on updating BIOS safely to assist you in this front.

As we mentioned earlier, the CMOS battery is detected by a sensor that works between the voltage of 2.6 to 2.9 V. If your motherboard’s battery is in full capacity and the error still does not go away, then the sensor may faulty. A damaged sensor cannot detect the battery, and the computer believes there is no battery at all.

We do not recommend checking or repairing the sensor yourself, as some errors may cause the whole motherboard to be damaged. So, take the system to the nearest service point or a professional for inspection and repair.

The BIOS keeps the boot information in the non-volatile memory of CMOS. Every time the system starts, the BIOS asks for the hardware information to CMOS and uses it to initiate them. A jumper closes the CMOS circuit instructing BIOS to work directly without getting to the CMOS chip. It also disconnects the battery causing the saved settings to erase, hence resetting the CMOS.

How To Manage And Restore Tmux Sessions In Linux

Tmux is a terminal multiplexer that comes stocked with a wide range of useful features and is backed by a surprising number of community-made plugins. Terminal multiplexers like tmux and Screen give your terminal window super productivity powers, allowing you to open multiple sessions in tabs and split screens. Combined with multiple terminal tools and session saving, you can also restore Tmux sessions after a hard reboot.

Installing tmux

Getting tmux ready and running on your system is relatively simple if you are using a Linux distribution.

For Ubuntu, this means summoning apt from your terminal and installing the package from the distribution’s official repository. For other distros, use your included package manager to handle the installation. (tmux is available on most distributions.)

Got it? Great! Now, let’s split our screen.

Creating Windows and Panes

In tmux, two terms are used to describe the main types of layout configurations we can create. “Windows” are the tmux term for tabs. Creating a new window will make a tab that you can switch over to with a simple command.

“Panes,” on the other hand, are splits in the current “Window” or tab that can also be switched to using a command.

Before we begin creating these, it is important to note that tmux is modal in function. What this means is that interactions with your terminal session and with tmux happen in separate “modes.” This is useful as you can use each individual terminal session you open normally without accidentally activating a tmux command.

To gain access to tmux and begin issuing commands, we’ll first start our new tmux session and name it:

Feel free to change the name (“babytmux”), of course!

Tmux should open immediately, and a new shell session should start up for you. But we want more than one, remember?

To enter tmux’s command mode, we’ll need to use the prefix. This is usually Ctrl and b pressed simultaneously. Alone, you won’t notice anything changing by pressing the prefix, but we can type out commands by entering : immediately after. To leave command mode, either complete the command by pressing Enter or press the ESC key to exit without making changes.

Tip: Get our Tmux keyboard shortcuts cheatsheet for a complete overview of basic keybindings.

We’ll use a shortcut to create a horizontal split: Press Ctrl and b, then “

Cool! Now, we can navigate between the two with the following: Ctrl and b, then o.

Each session is independent of the other, so we can open separate programs in each. Let’s quarter our screen with vertical splits and try it out: Ctrl and b, then %

Open whatever you want in each pane, and it will keep running while you access the others.

To make a window, use the following: Ctrl and b, then c

You can switch back to a previous window or move forward one window with:

Ctrl and b, then p


Ctrl and b, then n

The status bar at the bottom of the screen shows you a process that is running in each window and which window you are on (with “*”) for reference.

To leave this tmux session, use this: Ctrl and b, then type :detach-client

Your session will not stop running unless your machine is rebooted or you manually cancel it. To access it again, use this:

tmux a



To create truly immortal tmux sessions that can come back after a reboot, we need to install a plugin or two.

Installing Plugins

Using plugins in tmux is relatively straightforward. However, there is a plugin manager we can install to make subsequent plugin installations easier.

Plugin Manager

To install Tmux Plugin Manager, we will clone its files from Github with the following code:

# List of plugins











# Other examples:

# set -g @plugin 'github_username/plugin_name'

# Initialize TMUX plugin manager (keep this line at the very bottom of tmux.conf)

As you can see above, we will need to add the github username and plugin name (found in a plugin’s github URL) for each plugin we want to install from now on. The plugin manager will handle the rest. Use this code to get the plugin manager working:






Now, for the plugin we need to restore sessions after rebooting, keep reading.


Tmux Resurrect does just what its name suggests and brings your saved session back to life using a simple command.

This plugin can be installed by adding the following to your chúng tôi file:

Now, let Tmux Plugin Manager install it by using the following command in tmux: Ctrl and b, then I (This is “i” in UPPERCASE.)

Once installed, we can start a session and save it with the following: Ctrl and b, then Ctrl + s

To restore our session, we can use Ctrl and b, then Ctrl + r

Using the above, you can maintain an immortal tmux session with all of your preferred tools and processes in place even after rebooting. Give it a try and explore more of tmux’s features to get the most from your terminal.

Jeff Mitchell

Jeff is a long time laptop lover and coding hobbyist. His interests span the gamut from DAWs to Dapps and beyond. He runs a music/arts site at Odd Nugget.

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How To Fix Error Code Ws

The PlayStation Network is a critical component of the PlayStation ecosystem. So, you may be here because you can’t access it. How to fix error code WS-37388-0?

In particular, the WS-37388-0 error code occurs when you can’t access the PlayStation Network. It appears on the PS5 and the PS4 alike -it’s indifferent, as it’s mostly a server or account bug.

And, in most cases, it’s a server error, and there’s nothing to do. In other instances, bugs on your network or your console may damage your connection to the PSN services.

So, when you see it, you won’t be able to get online and use PlayStation’s online services. That includes multiplayer, PS Now, browsing the store or buying from the store. 

Network errors are perhaps the most frustrating issue you can find on consoles. That’s because the error is often out of your control, therefore, challenging to solve.

The issue has been happening since April 2023. Users cannot play online, download games, manage their accounts, or open the PlayStation Store whenever this happens. 

The first time it happened, PlayStation fixed the error on their side. However, users have been reporting the error since last year. We’ve seen cases of in-house problems causing the error code. 

Therefore, let’s see the possible causes:

The PSN server is down. Sony may take down the server for maintenance, which can last for hours. Also, rarely do the servers go down due to random errors. 

There’s a random error on your PSN account, which is preventing the servers from connecting with your PlayStation.

As you see, there’s nothing wrong with your PlayStation. Most probably, the only thing you’d need to do is wait until the error goes away. 

If you check the server status and the servers are okay, you’ll need to continue the troubleshooting. The solutions are waiting for the PSN server to return or erasing and re-adding your account to the PlayStation.

Sony allows you to check the status of the PSN servers and see if they are down, up, or limited.

Another way to check the server is by going to the DownDetector page. The site will clearly indicate if there’re any errors on the servers.

Lastly, you can check PlayStation’s Twitter account to know the latest issues and developments. If the servers are up, but you still get the problem, follow the step below.

Let’s begin this step with a trusty power cycle to erase any potential bugs. It will help delete network errors on your PSN account.

Press and hold the console’s power button for five seconds to turn it off.

Unplug all of its cables, as well as every peripheral.

Leave the console unplugged for one minute at least.

Plug back the console and turn it on.

If power cycling the console did not yield the best result for you, it’s time to erase your account from the PS4 or the PS5. Here’re the steps you need to follow:

On PS4

Let’s also start by closing the games or apps you’re using:

Press the controller’s PS button if you’re playing a game or within an app. It will take you to the dashboard.

Hover over to the app or game you were using.

Press the controller’s Options button.

Select the “Close,” “Close game,” or “Close application.”

Then, let’s erase your account.

On PS5

Let’s start by closing any game you might be using.

Afterward, follow these steps:

Return to the home screen.

Select the gear icon at the top to go to Settings.

Select Users and Accounts.

Select Users.

On the right side of the screen, you’ll see the users on your PS5. Press the trash icon to delete your user.

The last part of the troubleshooting is adding your account back to the console. Before following the steps, make sure you remember your password. If you don’t, you can check the last section of the article to recover your password.

On PS4

To log back into your account, here’re the steps:

Press the PS button.

Select “Power” on the left.

Select Switch User.

Select “New User.”

Select “Create a User.”

Type your PSN credentials and confirm.

Lastly, you can verify that you’re using the correct account on the same Power menu:

Press the PS button on the controller.

Go to Power.

Select Switch User.

Verify that you’re using your account.

On PS5

Go to Settings.

Select Users and Accounts.

Go to Users.

On the right side of the screen, select “+Add user.”

Select “Get started.”

Type your PSN credentials.

Then, let’s check that you’re using the proper account.

If you don’t remember your password, you can reset your credentials on Sony’s web page:

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