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Definition of Double Taxation

Double taxation occurs when the same income is subject to tax twice– either in the hands of two different taxable parties in the same country (called Economic Double Taxation) or in the hands of the same taxable party across two taxable jurisdictions or countries (called Juridical Double Taxation).

Explanation

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Corporations may be obligated to pay taxes on their profits, and a portion of those profits can also be subject to taxation for shareholders as dividend income.

How Does It Work?

Economic Double Taxation: Corporations must pay taxes based on their earnings for the period. Entities often distribute a portion of their profits to their shareholders as dividends. Shareholders must pay personal income tax on compensation from their investments in such corporations. Consequently, the company and the individual shareholder end up paying taxes on the same amount, as the company’s earnings are distributed as dividends.

Juridical Double Taxation: This kind of taxation occurs when the country of origin and residence are taxable entities. In the case of a company headquartered in the United States of America with its operations spread across the United Kingdom, for example, the company’s arm in the UK would be earning profits in the UK, which would be repatriated to the company’s home country – the USA. As a result, the UK arm would be required to pay taxes on its earnings in the UK. While the profits repatriated to the USA might also be taxed as per US taxation laws, leading to the profits being taxed twice – in the UK and the USA.

Example of Double Taxation

Different examples are mentioned below:

Economic Double Taxation

Juridical Double Taxation

Income Exempt: Repatriated profits may be exempt from tax in the US. Accordingly, the corporation would have no tax liability on the profits repatriated to the US.

Tax Credit: Corporation ‘A’ may be allowed a tax credit of $200,000 (the amount of tax paid in the UK on the same profits). As a result, the company’s tax liability on the repatriated profits may reduce to $50,000 as opposed to $250,000 had the income been fully taxed without the benefit of a tax credit.

Concessional Tax Rate: Repatriated profits may be taxed lower than the rate applicable to other corporation earnings, resulting in tax liability lower than $250,000.

Double Taxation Agreement

To avoid Juridical Double Taxation, various countries have entered into treaties to prevent it, often based on guidance provided by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Double Taxation Agreements (DTAs) are structures to avoid double taxation on international earnings of taxable entities, facilitate a better exchange of information between countries, promote improved trade relations, and prevent tax evasion.

Some of the common ways in which DTAs may provide relief from it are as follows –

The country of residence allows for income exemption from another country if the tax is paid in the country of origin.

They are taxing the income in both countries and providing tax credits in the country of residence to the extent of taxes paid in the country of origin.

We are allowing for lower or concessional rates of taxes in either of the taxing countries.

DTAs may contain different methods of claiming tax relief for different types of income.

How to Avoid Double Taxation?

Tax laws usually prevent double economic taxation through lower tax rates or tax credits. For example, individual taxpayers benefit from lower tax rates on qualified dividends in the US compared to the rates applicable to their regular income.

Under Juridical Double Taxation, the country of origin may exempt income if it has been taxed in the foreign country, or the country of residence may provide tax credits for international income or apply concessional tax rates, as per the DTA between the countries.

Advantages

Benefits to the Tax Payers

DTAs help reduce the tax burden that they would otherwise incur on account of double taxation by any of the following means (as provided for in the DTA) on their international income:

Foreign-source income is exempt

Foreign-source income is taxed at concessional rates

Tax credits or refunds of tax paid in the other country

Benefits to the nations involved in the DTA

Promotes better trade and investment relations between the nations

Allows for more transparency in the flow of transactions between the nations

Better information sharing between nations can help prevent or detect tax evasion.

Conclusion

It refers to the taxation of the same income twice, leading to higher-than-normal taxes levied on the same income on a macro level. Tax regulations and DTA allow for lower tax rates and tax credits to provide for double taxation. Thus, DTAs help relieve Juridical Double Taxation and allow for better trade relations and information sharing between countries.

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How Does Numpy.mean() Work With Example

Introduction to numpy.mean()

Numpy.mean() is function in Python language which is responsible for calculating the arithmetic mean for the all the elements present in the array entered by the user. Simply put the functions takes the sum of all the individual elements present along the provided axis and divides the summation by the number of individual calculated elements. The axis along which the calculation is made has to be prespecified or else the default value for axes will be taken.

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Syntax and Parameters

The following is the syntax that displays how to implement numpy.mean().

The syntax entered by the user is sent in terms of float * 64 intermediate and there by returns the value for the associated integers corresponding for the mean value.

The parameter used in the Syntax for using numpy.mean()

a *: *array *_ *like *

The array is being entered by the user or prompted to be entered. In case the array entered is not of an integer data type, then the conversion of the form is tried on the data entered.

axis : None *, *  *int *, *  *tuple * (optional parameter)

The computation of the axis along the elements of the specified array entered by the user is done. By default, the mean of the pre-flattened array is computed. In case the array entered is a tuple, in such a case the mean is computed over various axes of the array.

 dtype * *: * *data *– *type *, (parameter is optional)

For the computation of the mean the parameter type is utilized. By default, the float 64data type is used for arrays with integer data sets. In case the data being input is floating it remains the same as the dtype entered.

out : ndarray, (parameter is optional)

keepdims: bool, (parameter is optional)

If the parameter specified is True, the axis or axes which are deduced are kept in the expected result as the dimensions having size one. The option enables the result to be broadcasted correctly in response to the array which has been entered. In case value by default, a parameter is passed then the keepdims parameter would not be passed on to the method-specific for mean with respect to the array and its sub-classes. However, it must be noted that for non-default values passed the keepdims parameter would be applicable to raising exceptions if any.

m : ndarray

If the parameter out=None, then in such a case a new array is returned which contains the mean values. Else, in such cases, the reference values with respect to the elements if retuned.

Example to Implementation NumPy.mean()

Below are the examples mentioned:

Code:

import numpy as n1 a1 = n1.array([[10,20,30],[30,40,50],[40,50,60]]) print 'The new array entered by the user is:' print a1 print 'Application of the Numpy.mean() function on the array entered:' print n1.mean(a1) print 'Application of the mean() function alongside the axis - 0:' print n1.mean(a1, axis = 0) print ' Application of the mean() function alongside the axis - 1:' print n1.mean(a1, axis = 1)

The following output would be produced for the code specified above:

How Does the numpy.mean() Work?

The function scans through the values which are specified in the array which is provided by the user. It firstly tries to flatten the resultant array before the computation of the arithmetic mean on the same. The below diagrammatic systemic representation shows the function actually executes the calculation:

We can use the NumPy mean function to compute the mean value:

As the function for mean travels through various axis or axes provided by the user, it scan through and tries to integrate the arithmetic mean functionality for all integral values, Where the elements do not match up to be integral data type, it tries to convert such numbers.

Here you can see for a single dimensional array with six specified elements, the functions scans each of the elements and then divides the total summation of the elements by the total number of elements present in the array (here 6).

This way for arrays with multiple dimensions all or specified axis is mentioned along which the mean is calculated which is displayed in an array form for more than one-dimensional arrays.

Conclusion 

The function mean() in NumPy is very useful for calculating the arithmetic average of elements especially in terms of data given in array subsets. This being calculated through manual code impacts the verbosity of the code and thus impacts on the computation time for long codes with large data sets.

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How Does An Accrued Liability Work With Example?

Definition of Accrued Liabilities

Accrued liabilities are expenses incurred by the business but not yet paid. Accrued expense is a part of the accrual system of accounting, which states that an expense is recorded when it is incurred, and revenue is recorded when it is earned.

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This accounting system generates more accurate results as the expenses are matched with related revenues and are reported when the expense occurs, not when cash is paid.

Explanation

Accrued liabilities are the actual liabilities, the benefit against which is received by the business, but they are not yet paid. For example, services of the employees have been received, but their salary is yet to be paid, or goods have been received, but payment is yet to be made. Here, the price has to be made in a future period. If we don’t record such expenses in our books, it will not reflect an accurate financial picture of the company’s business. Accrual liabilities only occur when the business follows the Accrual accounting system.

An Accrual accounting system is a system in which all the expenses of a particular period are recorded in the same period in which they are incurred, irrespective of whether they are paid or not. Accrued liabilities are not accounted for when the business follows the cash basis of accounting. Under the Cash basis of accounting, only those expenses accounted for are paid during that period. A company’s balance sheet shows accrued liabilities under the current liabilities head.

How Does an Accrued Liability Work?

Accrued liabilities are recorded in the books of accounts at the end of the accounting period, and they are reversed in the period when they are paid. It is like a temporary account created in the books of accounts.

Expense A/c – Debit (Recording the actual expense)

Accrual Liability A/c – Credit (expense not paid hence liability created)

Accrual Liability A/c – Debit (Reducing the liability settled)

Cash A/c – Credit (Liability settled by paying cash)

The Accrued liabilities balance in the balance sheet will be reduced after payment.

Example of Accrued Liabilities

Suppose Company ABC Ltd. closes its books of accounts on the 31st of December every year. The company makes salary payments to all its employees on the 5th of next month. So, the salary for December month will be paid on the 5th of January of the next fiscal year, i.e., 2023. December month’s salary to be paid is $50,000.

In this case, the liability to pay the employees has been incurred, but the payment is not yet done. Hence, salary expenses will be recorded, and an opposite accrued liability for the same will be created in the books of accounts, and the same will be reversed next month.

Types of Accrued Liabilities

There are two types:

Recurring accrued liabilities: These are the ones that occur in the ordinary course of business. For example, wages for the current month are paid on the 10th of next month.

Non-recurring accrued liabilities: These are not regular accrued liabilities and do not occur in the ordinary course of business. For example, heavy machinery was purchased, but payment was not yet made.

Accrued Liabilities vs Accounts Payable

The primary difference between accrued liabilities and accounts payable is that the accounts payable are billed to the company, but accrued liability is not yet billed.

Another difference is that the accounts payable are a liability that will be paid soon. On the other hand, accrued liability is generally accrued and paid over some time.

Accounts payable are recorded for any expense billed like supplier invoice, vendor payment, etc. At the same time, accrued liabilities are recorded at the end of the fiscal year.

For example, a company purchases machinery from a supplier on the 30th of December 2023, the shipment of which will arrive in the next 15 days. If the company receives the invoice on or before the end of the accounting year, it will be booked as accounts payable. If the invoice is not received, it will be booked as an accrued liability.

Advantages

Following the accrual accounting system, it gives an accurate and fair picture of the company’s financial position. All the revenues of the current period and the expenses incurred to earn those revenues are recorded in the same accounting period. It will reflect the actual profit/loss of the company.

The Accrual accounting system is a preferred accounting system by the Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB).

Financial statements prepared using the accrual accounting system are comparable to the cash accounting system.

It is a complex accounting system and requires competent personnel who can track and report transactions promptly.

It does not provide an accurate picture in terms of sales and cash. The company’s sales may be much higher than its actual cash position.

It does not benefit small businesses where most transactions are done on a cash basis.

Conclusion

Accrued liabilities or accrued expenses are expenses incurred by the business in one period, but the payment will be made in another period. This way of recording the expenses gives us an accurate picture of accounting.

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How Does Ansible Iptables Works?

Introduction to Ansible Iptables

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In this article, we will learn about Ansible Iptables and see some practical implementations of it.

Explaining the Ansible Iptables

Ansible Iptables module is the same as you use Linux commands iptables and ip6tables because internally, it invokes those commands while executing any task on remote target machines. Like any other Ansible module, we have a set of parameters, their acceptance, and default values in this Ansible module. You must use a combination of these to create a required rule. Also, you shall be wary of the default values as you might not be mentioning all parameters in a play or task, but due to the default behavior of a parameter, it will anyway be realized and applied. So, do remember these when using the Ansible Iptables module.

action: –available options are appended and insert. The default is to decide whether to insert on top or append at the bottom.

chain: –This is to tell which iptables chain will be modified.

destination: –This is to specify the destination in a rule; this can be an IP, hostname, network range, etc.

destination_port: –This is to specify the destination or destination port range. Acceptable values are port numbers as well as the service name.

uid_owner: – This is to tell which user to use when doing a match in the owner rule.

to_source: – This is to specify the source to be used.

to_ports: – This is to specify the destination port range or a destination port.

to_destination: –This specified the destination address to use.

table: –Acceptable values are filter, nat, mangle, raw, and security. This is to specify the packet matching table on which command will work on. The default filters.

state: –Acceptable values are absent and present. The default is present. This is to specify whether to add or remove a rule.

src_range: –This is to specify the source IP range to match.

source: –This is to specify a source that can be an IP, hostname, network range, etc.

source_port: –This is to specify the source or source port range. Acceptable values are port numbers as well as the service name.

rule_num: –To specify the number at which to Insert the rule. This works with action=insert.

reject_with:-To specify the error when rejecting a package.

protocol: –This is to specify the packet or protocol to check. This can be tcp, udp, icmp, esp, ah, udplite, sctpor

policy: –Acceptable values are ACCEPT, DROP, QUEUE, and RETURN. This is to set the policy for the given target.

out_interface: –This is to specify the interface via which a packet will be sent.

match: –

log_prefix: –This is to specify a log text for the rule.

ip_version: – whether IPv4 or IPv6

in_interface: –This is to specify the interface via which a packet will be received.

gateway: –This is to specify the IP address where to send cloned packets. This only works when the JUMP parameter is set to TEE.

Jump: – This is to specify what shall be done when the packet matches a rule.

flush: –This is to specify the table and rule chains to be flushed. If nothing is specified, then all tables will be flushed.

How Does Ansible Iptables Works?

become: yes

In the next section, we will see some practical examples and their real-time usage. Also, by seeing the output of playbooks, we will try to understand how it works.

Examples of Ansible Iptables

First, let me introduce you to our lab environment. We have an Ansible controller node named ansible-controller. Also, as target remote machines, we have one Linux-based node named as host-one. We will run the Ansible command and playbooks on the Ansible control node ansible-controller and try to do changes on the target remote machine.

var: var_output_1.stdout_lines

Now running it like below: –

Now in the below output, you can see the iptables before and after. After the rule setup, we have all packages dropped from this IP.

Conclusion

As we saw in this article, Ansible Iptables is an important module that enables you to work on iptables remotely via Ansible. But you must only use it when you have good knowledge of Linux firewall and Ansible iptables; otherwise, you will end up in a mess of firewall rules and tables. So learn it first and then use it.

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How Does Constructor Works In React?

Definition of React Constructor

React constructor is a predefined function which will be called automatically on initialization of react component, in this function we can define initial data or states to show for the first time, these data could be “loading data” before getting all data to make better UI impacts.

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Syntax

Syntax #1:

With props in super(props): We pass super with props when we wanted to use this.props inside the constructor. Without passing props in the super function of the constructor, it will not work.

constructor(super) { super(props); this.state = { data: 'loading data', }; }

Syntax #2:

Without props in super(props): Here we are not passing props in super function. In this case, we can not use this. props inside the constructor.

constructor(super) { super(); this.state = { data: 'loading data', }; } How does Constructor Work in React?

You have seen every component in react js is a class which is extending react core library, and for any class when class object created or initialization happens it will call to react constructor first. Inside the constructor, a super function call is made these calls are made so that “this” attribute we can be used inside the constructor. Inside constructor for every super call it is not important to pass props, we will pass props only if we want to access “this.props”. In a very general team, we can say that react constructor is a default function for a class to execute on object creation of react component class

In the react js lifecycle their many functions, but the constructor is the function that gets executed first, so if we wanted to do any initialization we can do it inside the constructor. Inside react constructor we should not use this.setState() ,it is only for initialisation .

It’s working principle consists few important thinks they are

Load On Initialisation: Every time when anyone initializing the component it will load all the initial data, here loading means setting the values of the initial state.

No need to Call Manually: because the constructor is getting called on initialization we need not required to call constructor function in the to react component, it gets called automatically.

Let me explain its working principle with one real-time example, Suppose you are designing a page for all available product listing for the customer, And we know all the product details are fetched from the server, hence till all products will fetch from other server customer need to wait. Here constructor plays an important role, With the help of constructor we can set some basic and static products for the customer on initialization of component .because constructor initialize or called automatically it will set some products for customers instead of showing any blank page to him.

Examples to Implement Constructor in React

Examples to implement constructors in react are given below:

Example #1

Code:

constructor(props) { super(props); this.state = { cnt: 6 }; } this.setState( { cnt: chúng tôi + 1 } ); }; render() { return ( ); } } React.render( );

Output:

Example #2

In the below example we are performing constructor operation, here initially we set some value for the constructor and then again we changed it with the help of time. We can explain the below example in the below way.

Inside SampleConstructor

In this component, we are setting an initial value for the msg which is “Loading” on component SampleConstructor initialization (Object creation of the class)

A function called componentDidMount will be called after the first rendering of component and then changing the value of msg accordingly.

Inside ConstructorExample,

In this component we are setting a flag as initialization inside a constructor, if the value for the flag is true it will call to component SampleConstructor else it will print “different component”

Please see the below example with a screen of outputs,

Code:

class SampleConstructor extends React.Component { constructor(props) { super(props); this.state = { msg: 'Loading' } this.cnt = 1; } componentDidMount() { this.timerForData = setInterval(function(){ this.setState({ msg: chúng tôi === 'Loading' ? 'Data is still loading' : 'Data Loaded' }) this.cnt = chúng tôi + 1; }.bind(this), 1000); } componentWillUnmount() { clearInterval(this.timerForData); } render() { return ( ) } } class ConstructorExample extends React.Component { constructor(props) { super(props); this.state = { flag: true } } componentDidMount() { this.timerForData = setInterval(function(){ this.setState({ flag: !this.state.flag }) }.bind(this), 10000); } render() { return ( ) } }

Output:

Output on initialization of component as it was the value set from the constructor of SampleConstructor.

Once the interval is complete it will change the state value of msg to new. On each change of state, render will be called.

This output comes from the second(ConstructorExample) component. In this component it checks for the flag, here we have set the flag value is true on initialization inside the constructor function. And inside this flag value will keep changing

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What Is Double Vpn & How It Works? (Quickly Explained)

You probably don’t realize how visible and vulnerable you are on the web. We’ve written a series of articles to explain your first line of defense in Internet security: a VPN. We discuss what they are, why they’re effective, how they work, and the best VPN choices.

But what is a double VPN? Does it make you twice as safe? How does it work? Read on to find out.

How a VPN Works

When your device connects to a website, it sends packets of data containing your IP address and system information. Your IP address lets everyone know where on earth you’re located. Most websites keep a permanent log of that information.

It’s like you’re swimming with sharks. What do you do? A VPN is where you should start. VPNs use two techniques to protect you:

All of your traffic is encrypted from the time it leaves your computer. While your ISP and others can see you’re using a VPN, they can’t see the information you send or the websites you visit.

All of your traffic goes through a VPN server. The websites you visit see the IP address and location of the server, not your own.

How Double VPN Works

Double VPN adds a second layer of security for ultimate peace of mind. Not everyone needs this level of security and anonymity—a normal VPN connection offers enough privacy for daily internet use.

It chains two VPN connections together. Ideally, the two servers will be in different countries. Your data is encrypted twice: once on your computer and again on the second server.

What difference does this make to your privacy and security?

The second VPN server will never know your actual IP address. It only sees the IP address of the first server. Any websites you visit will only see the IP address and location of the second server. As a result, you’re far more anonymous.

Trackers will know that you’re connected to a VPN server and what country it’s in. BUT they’ll have no idea there’s a second server. As with a normal VPN connection, they won’t know which websites you access.

You’ll be able to access online content as if you’re located in that second country.

Double encryption is overkill. Even conventional VPN encryption takes billions of years to hack using brute force.

In short, double VPN makes it much harder to track what you’re up to. Users behind China’s firewall could connect to the United States via a country in Africa. Anyone watching their traffic in China would only see they’re connected to a server in Africa.

Why Not Use Double VPN All the Time?

That extra security sounds appealing. Why don’t we just use double VPN every time we go online? It all comes down to speed. Your traffic is encrypted twice instead of once, and it passes through two servers rather than one. The result? Network congestion.

How much slower is it? That’s likely to vary depending on the location of the servers. When I reviewed NordVPN, one of the few VPN services to offer double VPN, I ran some speed tests to find out.

I first tested my internet speed without using a VPN. It was 87.30 Mbps. I tested it again when connected to several of Nord’s servers using “single” VPN. The fastest speed I achieved was 70.22 Mbps, the slowest 3.91, and the average 22.75.

I then connected using double VPN and ran a final speed test. This time it was just 3.71 Mbps.

The extra overhead of double VPN drastically reduces your connection speed, but it also makes it extremely difficult for anyone to track or identify you.

So What Should You Do?

In most cases, a normal VPN is all you need to protect online privacy and security. Your traffic is encrypted and passes through a VPN server. That means no one can see the information you send, the websites you visit, your real identity, or your location.

That is, no one except the VPN service you use—so choose one that you trust. That’s an important decision, so we’ve written several articles to help you choose wisely:

But there are times you might choose increased security and anonymity over connection speed. Those who live in countries that censor the internet may want to avoid government surveillance.

Political activists would prefer that their online activities not be tracked by authorities. Journalists need to protect their sources. Perhaps you just feel strongly about security.

How do you get double VPN? You sign up for a VPN service that offers it. Two great options are NordVPN and Surfshark.

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