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With the iPhone 12 series introduction, Apple stopped including chargers and headphones with iPhones. At the time, Apple claimed it was doing so to go carbon neutral by 2030. It’s been two years since, and several manufacturers have jumped the bandwagon of omitting accessories.

However, what’s being killed in the process is consumers’ pockets. Do you think it is just another money-making technique, or it’s indeed making a big impact? Let’s find out!

Why has Apple stopped providing chargers and EarPods with iPhones?

Apple’s explanation for removing the charging brick and EarPods is to save the environment by cutting down its carbon emissions. As the accessories are removed from the box, the box gets slimmer, allowing Apple to ship 70% more boxes on a pallet.

Apple claims, when put together, these changes will cut 2 million metric tons of carbon emissions annually. It is the equivalent of removing around 450,000 cars from the road in a year. And iPhone users already have charging adaptors for their older iPhones anyway.

So, how is any of this wrong? Is there something Apple is not telling us? Well, there might be something!

What is Apple not telling us?

Apple took the saying, “A penny saved is a penny earned,” and put it into action like no other. How? Well, cutting accessories from the box only helped the company get faster to their goals.  

1. More accessories sold

Firstly, the older iPhones came with power adaptors, which supported only 5W charging speeds and had a USB-A output. Apple has been providing a USB-C to Lightning adaptor with newer iPhones, rendering the older adaptors useless.

So, users have to buy new adapters from Apple, which increases not only the company’s profits but also carbon emission as there’s extra packaging, transport, etc., of a product that would have already been within the box. Doesn’t it seem like Apple is contradicting itself?

Right now, it certainly looks like Apple is just cutting costs and trying to make more profits. Don’t believe me? Well, Apple made about $6 billion by not providing accessories. In the long run, I hope this move helps make a difference in the environment.

2. Pushing users towards AirPods

There were several TWS Bluetooth earbuds in the market before the inception of AirPods. But, as soon as Apple removed the headphone jack from its iPhones and introduced AirPods, the TWS or Bluetooth Audio wearables market, in general, took off.

AirPods as a business alone made around $240 billion back in December 2023. Looking at these numbers will enlighten you that Apple made substantial money by creating a problem and then selling a solution.  

3. Portless iPhone? 

iPhone loses the power adaptor from the box as soon as it introduces MagSafe wireless charging and accessories compatible with it. Was it a coincidence? Evidence doesn’t favor the argument. Also, don’t tell me you haven’t heard rumors stating that Apple would soon omit the Lightning port and provide a portless iPhone.

Wireless audio and wireless charging are already here. The last step would be transferring data at higher speeds, and Apple is also said to be working on the same.

Understanding the pricing pattern of the iPhone

Up until the iPhone 7 series, iPhones were priced around the $700 mark. Later, the iPhone X was Apple’s first smartphone to begin at $999, and ever since, the company has maintained the $999 price point for all its flagship models.

Does it seem like I’m portraying the Cupertino tech giant in a good light? Not entirely, but hear me out. Apple has maintained the $999 price point even though prices for components have been on the rise not only due to inflation, but the tech industry, in general, has been facing issues like chip shortage, and well, oh well, all of us have been through the pandemic together so that’s another aspect we can’t ignore.

Does removing accessories help Apple maintain the $1000 price point? 

Let me begin with an example: The costliest single hardware component with the iPhone 11 Pro was its cameras costing around $70. However, with the iPhone 12 Pro, the costliest component was the 5G modem, costing around $90. And that is when accessories disappeared from the box. Another coincident?  

Also, no, I am not ignoring the fact that Apple spends most of its money on Research and Development, and since the iPhone X, iPhones have had a similar design with a few minor tweaks here and there. So, that is another reason Apple has been able to maintain the $999 price point.  

Who is affected the most by the removal of accessories?

The $999 price tag for iPhone 13 Pro, while being expensive, is still affordable in countries like the USA, UK, Canada, etc. At the same time, in countries like India, Turkey, and Brazil, you’d have to pay $1500 to $1800 for the same iPhone 13 Pro. Yes, the price is factored in for numerous reasons.

While the iPhone is not an essential commodity to survive, consumers who spend almost double the amount on these devices have to go out and spend more on accessories. Also, these countries are emerging markets for Apple, and this move certainly disincentivizes consumers. The accessories are also grossly overpriced in these countries. 

Why do other companies follow Apple?  

Apple is a 3 trillion-dollar company and while achieving this feat is no piece of cake, it reached this stage as it’s aware of its value in the market and the prestige that comes with owning an iPhone. Not everyone considers the iPhone a means to an end. The never-ending blue bubble vs. green bubble is a great example of this. 

Everyone criticizes Apple for omitting the headphone jack with the iPhone 7, and rightly so; it led to TWS becoming mainstream. Not that it is a bad thing, because TWS make taking calls and listening to audio convenient, but it adds costs. However, Apple wasn’t the first manufacturer to omit the headphone jack. OPPO did it long back in 2012 with its OPPO Finder. 

It didn’t pan out as the company created a problem but didn’t have the proper infrastructure ready to solve it at the time. The same cannot be said for when Apple omitted the headphone jack. It created a problem and sold a solution, i.e., the AirPods. 

Has this step had a positive impact on the environment?

Source: Apple

Apple revealed it saved 861,000 metric tons of copper, tin, and zinc ore due to its move of not including chargers and EarPods in the box in its Environmental Progress Report. And the report also mentions how thinner packaging allows 70% more iPhone boxes to be shipped on a pallet.  

But what if you’re buying an iPhone for the first time or even upgrading from an older iPhone? You will need to get a new power adaptor from Apple or any third-party company just to charge your iPhones. This results in more carbon emissions both in terms of packaging and transportation.

What should Apple have done?

In my opinion, Apple could give users a choice if they wanted a charger or not with their purchase, just like Xiaomi did with their Mi 11. If Apple actually cared about the environment, it could’ve added incentives to purchasing just the iPhone if you already have a power brick.

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Consumer Technology and Motorcycles are the two things that excite Darryl the most. Why? Because Tech helps better people’s lives, and solving people’s problems related to tech is something he enjoys. And what about bikes, you ask? Well, drop a gear and disappear.

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Luxury Apple Accessories Trend Continues With $780 Leather

There’s always been a market for luxury Apple accessories, with leather sleeves and cases leading the charge. But the latest trend seems to be charging a huge markup for rebadged versions of existing products, where most of the cost is for the branding …

We saw that recently with Louis Vuitton charging $995 for a pair of – admittedly excellent – true wireless in-ear headphones that normally cost $299. That one got you a different finish and case (a far less attractive one, in my view) and some LV initials.

The latest example is a rebadged Native Union wireless charger. Buy the standard one (already very nice), and it will cost you $60. Buy the Berluti-branded one spotted by The Verge and it will instead cost you a cool $720.

Granted, the French fashion house does put in some work. It’s rather beautifully covered in aged leather, and even has a leather-covered cable. I must admit I like it. Just not enough to pay seven hundred bucks for it.

If you’re looking for some rather more affordable luxury Apple accessories, here are a few things we’ve tested …

Nimble eco-friendly portable & wireless chargers

Started by three former Mophie executives, Nimble is a new company taking a fresh approach on making accessories like power banks and wireless chargers. With the mantra, “Tech for Good” Nimble thinks users should know where products come from, how they are made, and the impact they have on the environment.

All in all, I think Nimble has created a compelling lineup of products. They have a solid build quality, sharp look and feel (as long as you’re cool with fabric-wrapped gear) and do it all using an eco-friendly approach.

Yohann’s MacBook Pro and MacBook Stand

Most MacBook stands on the market fall into one of the few aluminum-based styles that have become commonplace. That’s why we jumped at the chance to go hands-on with Yohann’s MacBook and MacBook Pro Stand that breaks the mold with both its material choice and striking design.

This stand certainly isn’t for everyone at $159 for the oak version and $179 for the walnut variant. However, for those who aren’t price sensitive and value a unique, high-quality MacBook stand, Yohann’s offering feels like a top-pick.

Woolnut’s MacBook Pro leather sleeve.

Apple’s sleeve costs $179 for the 13-inch MacBook Pro, and $199 for the 15-inch model.

Woolnut’s costs $89 for the 13-inch version, and $99 for the 15-inch one – so pretty much exactly half the price.

Even if both were identically priced, the softer feel in the hand and ability to charge while inside the sleeve would be solid arguments in favor of Woolnut. But throw in the fact that the Woolnut sleeve is literally half the price for something which looks and feels just as good, then – unless you have a strong preference for aniline leather or are willing to pay a lot for that Apple logo – Woolnut presents a very compelling case.

Twelve South’s Journal case for MacBook Pro.

The Twelve South Journal isn’t cheap. The one for the 13-inch MacBook Pro costs $149.99, while the 15-inch version is $169.99.

But that sort of pricing isn’t unusual for premium leather cases for Apple kit. Apple’s own leather sleeve (review, with video below) for the 15-inch version costs $199, and this is a much more substantial product. Journal is both beautiful and functional, and you’ll be able to use it for as long as you keep the MacBook – or any subsequent model of the same size – so I’d say it justifies the price.

Satechi’s Aluminum Keyboard in Space Gray

With a full aluminum build, great key feel, color options of space gray, silver, gold, and rose gold, Satechi’s Aluminum Bluetooth Keyboard is a winner for $70 less than Apple’s Magic Keyboard.

Other features like USB-C charging, pairing with three devices, and dedicated Mac shortcut keys make this a compelling keyboard choice for Mac users.

Leather iPad cases from Brydge and Picaso Lab.

Both Brydge and Picaso Lab leather iPad Pro cases and sleeves are solid options. Both companies tick all the boxes for high-quality leather and craftsmanship. All the products tested look and feel great, and the prices are reasonable for the quality you’re getting.

But the choice will be a personal one. Do you prefer open sleeve or zipped case? Do you have a keyboard or not? And do you want a choice of color? I don’t think you can go wrong here with either company.

Understands Butler, a neat wooden shelf for an iMac or Apple monitor

If your desire for tidiness doesn’t quite extend to having a custom desk created for you, a rear shelf for an iMac or Apple Thunderbolt Display can be a good way to keep things tidy.

The base-model 15-inch Butler is twice the price of Twelve South’s metal shelf. Both look good, but personally I’d be willing to pay the premium for wood.

Check out 9to5Mac on YouTube for more Apple news:

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Iphone Xs: What’s In The Box?

So the iPhone XS launched earlier this month alongside the bigger iPhone XS Max, and the “affordable” iPhone XR. Well, we recently got our hands on an iPhone XS, and here’s what you’ll find (and what you’ll not find) inside the box of the new Rs 99,990 iPhone from Apple.

iPhone XS: What’s In the Box?

The iPhone XS comes in the usual iPhone-y box that has remained the same for the last, I don’t know how many years, and that’s perfectly fine. The Gold variant that we got (which looks gorgeous, by the way) comes in a standard white box with the ‘iPhone’ text and the Apple logo done in gold — that’s a nice touch. I’m not sure if the other colors come with the text and logo in their respective colors as well, but they probably do.

Anyway, opening the box is the usual Apple affair with easy to slide-out lids, a pull tab for the phone, and some in-box accessories under it. Here’s what you’ll get:

The iPhone XS (because you paid for it)

Lots and lots of manuals and certification cards that you won’t ever read.

Apple stickers (whatever you do, please don’t stick these on your car? Please?)

SIM ejector tool

Lightning EarPods (because of the courage Apple showed two years back)

USB Type-A to Lightning cable

Charger (not a fast charger, so it takes forever to charge your new iPhone)

No headphone dongle (because apparently it’s impossible to include a $9 accessory with a $999 iPhone)

A Small Rant… Probably

So the iPhone XS is an absolute beauty, and I’ll not go into further detail about it here because then what will I write in the full review? Heh. Anyway, the issue I have (and so does almost everyone else on the planet other than the Cupertino staff) is with two things. First, the lack of a headphone dongle in the box. That’s just really petty from Apple, especially on a smartphone that is priced at a whopping $999 or Rs 99,990 in India. Just for the record, you wouldn’t get a dongle even if you bought the 512GB iPhone XS Max for $1,449 or Rs 1,44,990 in India, and it makes no sense.

Of course, there’s the argument that if you’re spending $999 on a smartphone, you can probably afford to spend $9 extra on a dongle, but that’s stupid. The point is, if I’m spending $999 on a smartphone that has no headphone jack, it’s almost the moral responsibility of the courageous company to put in a headphone dongle inside it, especially when the company is using a proprietary port on its phone instead of USB-C.

The other thing I’m pissed off about is the lack of a fast charger in the box. I mean, c’mon! That’s just downright insane. The battery on the iPhone X isn’t huge by any means, it’s barely even up there with Android flagships, and it still takes far longer than any other Android smartphone in the market to charge this thing.

Anyway, we can’t do anything about this, other than buy a headphone dongle, a pair of Bluetooth earphones, and a fast charger on our own, because apparently $999 doesn’t warrant good accessories in the box.

That wasn’t really a small, quick rant, was it? Let me know if you think Apple took the courageous path once again with the accessories (or lack thereof) in the iPhone XS box.

Back To School Gift Guide: The Best Tech & Accessories For Apple

As we head into back to school season, many students, teachers, and parents are looking to update to the latest technology in order to have the smoothest school year possible. New laptops are purchased, phones are upgraded, accessories are bought, and much more. This year, we’ve decided to give you a breakdown of some of the best technology you can buy for the upcoming school year.

In this day and age, laptops are almost essential to the success of a student, especially in college. The idea of dropping over $1000 on a new laptop seems daunting, but thankfully Apple has a handful of incentives in place for students. If you head over to Apple’s Education Store, you’ll see discounts on all of Apple’s laptops and desktops. The 12-inch MacBook starts at $1249, the MacBook Air starts at $849, and the MacBook Pro starts at $999. Apple’s iMac, Mac Pro, and Mac mini are also discounted, but those aren’t necessarily the best choice for students that will be constantly on the move.

Personally, my recommendation for students – and what I will be using this school year– is the 12-inch MacBook. The combination of the slim and portable design and beautiful Retina display makes it the best in my opinion for students. Of course, you’ll want to invest in at least a few adapters, but that’s the price you pay for such a portable design.

In addition to the existing education discount Apple is providing, the company is also offering a free pair of Beats Solo2 Wireless Headphones with the purchase of a MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, iMac, or Mac Pro. This offer will only run for a limited time, however, so don’t wait too long.

No matter which MacBook you end up choosing, there are a variety of accessories that will pair nicely. First off, you’ll want to invest in some USB-C accessories if you choose the 12-inch MacBook. Below are some of my favorites:

If you chose any of the other Mac choices, there are some other accessories that I would recommend, as well. (These can also be used with the 12-inch MacBook, just make sure you have the correct adapter if necessary).

Despite our ever-growing reliance on the cloud, I still like to carry a flash drive with me at all times, while the TwelveSouth HiRise is the perfect option to free up some much-needed desk space. Additionally, I love to use Bluetooth keyboards when I use a stand with my MacBook. Check out all of my recommendations below:

If you would like an external monitor to hook up to when needed, my personal favorite remains the 4K-capable Samsung U28E590D, which can be picked up on Amazon for $399 in 28-inch or $339 in 24-inch.

Now that you’ve got your computer situation all squared away, there are variety of things that make life easier when it comes to your iPhone and iPad. First and foremost, I highly suggest that anyone living in a dorm or with any roommates pick up a pair of noise-cancelling headphones. After reading Seth’s review earlier this summer, I went out and bought myself a Bose’s new QuietComfort 35 wireless headphones, and I’ve never looked back. They’re pricey at $349, but the ability to have peace and quiet while doing school work is invaluable. If you’re looking for something slightly cheaper, Bose’s QuietComfort 25 headphones are available for $299, but I’d strongly suggest to drop the extra $50 and get the 35s. A variety of other affordable options are available, with reviews, on Amazon.

You’ll also definitely want to pick up a pair of earbuds for walks from class to class, downtime, and maybe even during that really boring lecture. Personally, I’m a fan of the urBeats In-Ear offering, which come in at $69.99. Though if Apple is indeed removing the 3.5mm headphone jack with the iPhone 7, a wiser investment might be a solid pair of Bluetooth earbuds. The Jaybird X2 Sport are a great affordable option, especially if you plan on hitting the gym a lot to combat the deadly freshmen 15.

Another thing you’ll definitely want to have is a solid Bluetooth speaker. A variety of options exist, but it really just depends on your use cases. Below are some great options at every price point:

One of my favorite ways to unwind is with Netflix, and at this point the best entertainment box on the market is the fourth-gen Apple TV. With support for apps and games, the Apple TV will be a hit in college dorms for everyone. You can pick one up for $149, although we frequently see deals for far less, so keep your eyes on 9to5Toys, as well.

One of the best decisions I made during last school year was investing in an iPad Pro + Apple Pencil. The Apple Pencil Personally, I’m partial to the 9.7-inch iPad Pro. It starts at $579 with the student discount, while the 12.9-inch model starts at $779. For a limited time, you’ll also get a pair of Powerbeats 2 Wireless Headphones for free.

If you invest in an iPad Pro, the Apple Pencil is essentially a must have. It makes things like taking notes, annotating papers, peer-reviewing essays, and so much more a lot easierEarlier this year, I rounded up the best apps for taking notes on the iPad Pro with your Apple Pencil, and GoodNotes 4 remains my top choice at the moment. The Apple Pencil runs $99.

Finally, there are a handful of less exciting things that are very useful for students, especially those living in a dorm. You’ll want to keep all your electronics clean, so investing in a cleaning cloth and spray is a must. A desk lamp is also vital for late-night studying. Cable management is also vital, otherwise you’ll end up with a mess of wires and a fire hazard. View my picks for all of these problems below:

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How Has Steve Jobs Changed Your Life? Answers From The Industry

Perhaps the greatest man of our time has died today, Steve Jobs. So many kind things were being said on Twitter…I thought I would ask people how Steve Jobs had changed the lives of those in this industry. Here are some answers:

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Aside from the obvious, (I write this on an Apple MacBook Pro as my Apple iPhone buzzes) Steve Jobs definitely impacted my life. He was a visionary that taught me that attention to detail can make or beak a product, and that every touch point of the consumer should be unexpected and awe-inspiring. Steve helped evolve marketing and product design as a whole, and with it my own thinking.

Samir Balwani

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Alan Bleiweiss

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I worked at Apple from 1987 through 1994, arriving just after his ouster by the board. My employees had a balanced view of Jobs – genius, madman, mercurial, inspirational. I had the opportunity to work with and get to know Jobs’ successor, John Sculley, and always felt that history had short-changed Sculley – the year before Sculley joined, annual revenues were $750 million; the year he left, revenues peaked at $8 billion, sliding to a low of $2 billion during the ensuing period marked by “bozo CEOs.”

Having said that, there’s no denying Jobs succeeded at creating, sustaining and then reviving one of the most innovative, fun, world-changing businesses in human history. I owe him a debt of gratitude – I’ve tried to create and manage companies that mirror the best of the philosophy and creativity he espoused.

Dave Szetela

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Steve’s legacy taught me about competition and why it’s important to keep your mouth shut. He inspired me to strive for simplicity and showed me what real innovation is. He encouraged me to fight for what I want in a product, and if I can’t get it or don’t like it, to start over. Even though I never knew him personally, he has left an indelible imprint on how I approach many aspects of my life and business. I will truly miss him.

Jon Henshaw

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My Steve Jobs takeaways are pretty simple: Passion is mandatory. Mediocrity is unacceptable.

Greg Boser

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Steve Jobs has touched my life in a very deeply personal way. Much of the way I work, play, and communicate is facilitated by either an iPhone, iPad, or iMac. The people I love and care about most are never more than the light touch of a screen away.

Michelle Stinson Ross

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Steve Jobs was always an inspiration to me because of his entrepreneurial journey and focus on design. I realized how important simplicity and design was to a business, while working at PayPal. Every so often I would listen to his Stanford speech as a reminder of not only how great an inspirational leader he was, but like those at Apple say, a great human being. , He was truly an icon of our time, a visionary, and a leader that inspired a generation of technologists and entrepreneurs.

Tony Adam

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He was a visionary. He shared his vision. He moved himself, others, me, and future generations forward. What Ford did to automotive, Steve did to computers and technology. His technology rests in my hands everyday.

Thomas Ballantyne III

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Steve Jobs’ inventions brought mobility to my life. chúng tôi talk shows help me stay on top of Search while bike riding thanks to iTunes. I can handle client needs while traveling thanks to the iPhone and iPad. Bottom line, the world is more “tactile” as we touch and swipe thanks to Steve Jobs!

Dana Lookadoo

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I never understood the thrill of Apple until I received the iPhone when it first came out. Instant love and adoration for this simple thing that improved my life. It made me a convert to the Apple way of life. Thank you Steve Jobs.

Kristi Davis

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Steve Jobs was one of my first gaming experiences. I will never forget The Oregon Trail with broken arms, bouts of cholera, and that one time the thieves stole all of my clothes. Although I turned PC from college onward, I changed my ways. In my grown-up life, the iPhone 3GS, which I was initially fiercely against, became my new love. My Words with Friends and Plants vs Zombies addictions are just a few examples of how Apple stealthily entered my life, and I will never be the same.

Rebecca Jutzi

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To me, Steve Jobs is the epitome of not giving up. He easily could have packed it in when Apple missed the mark early on but he didn’t let failure get in the way of his vision. Love him or hate him, the guy stuck to his guns.

Brian LaFrance

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Steve Jobs taught me how powerful simplicity can be. He’s showed me how to think about the same thing everyone else has thought about, but in a completely different way.

Chase Granberry

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What I admired about him was how his presentation style. It was simple yet visual which was so powerful & profound. He was one of the reasons why I want to do more public speaking / presentations. He mentioned somewhere that when presenting tell a story & let the slides assist you, rather than being the story.

Victoria Edwards

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He made technology easier to learn and access. He also raised the bar with each new product. If anything he was creating products and innovation to inspire the next Steve Jobs of future generations.

Joshua Titsworth

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Barbara Boser

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I never really understood the hype about Apple until I held an iPhone for the first time. I just thought “This is it.” – this was the thing I had been waiting to exist since I was a kid. It was as close to a flying car as I had ever seen. Steve Jobs did what every technologist and marketer aspires to – he built what we wanted before we even knew we wanted it.

Dr. Peter J. Meyers

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I’m pretty speechless.. not sure what I’d really say there, sorry. An amazing man.

Ross Hudgens

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Steve Jobs taught me that you can come from a humble background and make a life for yourself that you can feel very proud of. He finished the race strong and left behind a legacy for others to build on. He also taught me to live my life like each day could be my last.

Annie Cushing

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Steve Jobs made being a geek a good thing. He showed us design matters and tenacity and innovation and perfection will win the day.

Diane Kinney

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If it weren’t for Steve Jobs, I would not have the career I do today. He helped make computers accessible and even cool. SEO wouldn’t be what it is today without the influence of visionaries like him, who truly paved the way to bring computers into the home and pocket. He made geek “cool”.

Michael Halvorsen

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I’ll tell how Steve Jobs changed my life. I am on a flight from Charlotte to Phoenix using my iPad where I learned of his passing online, received your email, sent this response, while listening to iTunes. Nuff said.

Arnie Kuenn

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Man, where to start… Steve Jobs changed my life in so many ways.

Whether he was in the news for leading Apple to another innovation or stifling them with obsessive and suffocating micromanagement, he taught me what it meant to be a leader and what passion really was. Steve cared about every part of the process. He had such a passion for his products that he put his finger in every step of its journey from concept to packaging. He’s an inspiration to entrepreneurs everywhere.

Mitch Monsen

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Steve Jobs has forever changed how a view simplicity. Steve has forever changed how I view what’s really possible with animation techniques (Pixar). But, most importantly,Steve helped alter the way I associate rebellion with innovation: if you’re not doing either, you’re not doing enough.

Anthony Verre

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Not being an Apple user, I still feel the impact of Steve Jobs every day. His ability to take the complex & make it easy to understand & usable for masses has impacted the design of almost every electronic device we touch. With out his vision, people might still be using DOS, and mp3 players would take a science degree master and tablets would still be years away.

His vision & foresight will be missed and I can feel the pace of the technology revolution/inovation slowing down as a sign of respect.

Alan K’necht

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I was living in Italy when Pope John Paul II died. Though not a Catholic, I felt pained that a great man had been taken from the earth. Though not an Apple user, the feeling is very similar today. The company I work for today would not exist without Steve Jobs. I thank him for putting food on my table.

Scott Cowley

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Steve Jobs has had a profound impact on the way I look at problems and how to solve these. Lots of times I would consider a complex solution where Steve would bring me back to simplicity. what a great product & technology visionair!

Dennis Goedegebuure

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For me, it was always about Apple. I have never had a PC. I listened to music with Apple. I watched TV with Apple. I talked to people with Apple. I even started my business with Apple. Steve Jobs is and always will be an incredible inspiration to me, and every dreamer out there wanting to do it for themselves. What a sad day, for us and for his family especially.=

Shaun Anderson

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Through design, technology, innovation, and the drive to consistently push an industry forward, Steve Jobs is a model not just to his peers, but for the world’s generations to come.Steve was, is, and will continue to be an inspiration to big thinkers. The Steve Jobs legacy will live on.

Bernie Prebynski

thank you Steve and I’m sure my kids will thank you in 20 years too.

Olivier Amar

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I’ve been using Macintosh and following Steve Jobs since the early 80’s. I remember watching the commercial made famous “1984” so I went out and bough my first apple… it gave me the belief and hope in myself that anything is possible. Today I’m using my 8th Apple while I cry for a man I never met and for the legacy he left.

Gabriella Sannino

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He changed my life as an adult the way Willy Wonka changed my life as a child.

Andrew Shotland

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Steve Jobs’ products never changed my life. It was his words that did. Specifically his Stanford commencement speech. It was during that speech that my perspective on life changed and the deep motivation to chase after my dreams began. For anyone who hasn’t seen it, that speech can be found on YouTube.

Timothy Carter

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Steve Jobs has made some of the most amazing tools and toys I have ever had the privilege to touch. The iPhone and the iPad are constantly used in my day. I can’t life without them. Every member of my family has an iPhone and we look like dorks when we have dinner because we are all playing with our iPhones. Steve’s genius and creativity has improved my work life, my family life and my fun life.

Melissa Fach

Choosing The Right Statistical Test

Statistical tests are used in hypothesis testing. They can be used to:

determine whether a predictor variable has a statistically significant relationship with an outcome variable.

estimate the difference between two or more groups.

Statistical tests assume a null hypothesis of no relationship or no difference between groups. Then they determine whether the observed data fall outside of the range of values predicted by the null hypothesis.

If you already know what types of variables you’re dealing with, you can use the flowchart to choose the right statistical test for your data.

Statistical tests flowchart

What does a statistical test do?

Statistical tests work by calculating a test statistic – a number that describes how much the relationship between variables in your test differs from the null hypothesis of no relationship.

It then calculates a p value (probability value). The p-value estimates how likely it is that you would see the difference described by the test statistic if the null hypothesis of no relationship were true.

If the value of the test statistic is more extreme than the statistic calculated from the null hypothesis, then you can infer a statistically significant relationship between the predictor and outcome variables.

If the value of the test statistic is less extreme than the one calculated from the null hypothesis, then you can infer no statistically significant relationship between the predictor and outcome variables.

When to perform a statistical test

You can perform statistical tests on data that have been collected in a statistically valid manner – either through an experiment, or through observations made using probability sampling methods.

For a statistical test to be valid, your sample size needs to be large enough to approximate the true distribution of the population being studied.

To determine which statistical test to use, you need to know:

whether your data meets certain assumptions.

the types of variables that you’re dealing with.

Statistical assumptions

Statistical tests make some common assumptions about the data they are testing:

Independence of observations (a.k.a. no autocorrelation): The observations/variables you include in your test are not related (for example, multiple measurements of a single test subject are not independent, while measurements of multiple different test subjects are independent).

Homogeneity of variance: the variance within each group being compared is similar among all groups. If one group has much more variation than others, it will limit the test’s effectiveness.

Normality of data: the data follows a normal distribution (a.k.a. a bell curve). This assumption applies only to quantitative data.

If your data do not meet the assumptions of normality or homogeneity of variance, you may be able to perform a nonparametric statistical test, which allows you to make comparisons without any assumptions about the data distribution.

If your data do not meet the assumption of independence of observations, you may be able to use a test that accounts for structure in your data (repeated-measures tests or tests that include blocking variables).

Types of variables

The types of variables you have usually determine what type of statistical test you can use.

Quantitative variables represent amounts of things (e.g. the number of trees in a forest). Types of quantitative variables include:

Continuous (aka ratio variables): represent measures and can usually be divided into units smaller than one (e.g. 0.75 grams).

Discrete (aka integer variables): represent counts and usually can’t be divided into units smaller than one (e.g. 1 tree).

Categorical variables represent groupings of things (e.g. the different tree species in a forest). Types of categorical variables include:

Ordinal: represent data with an order (e.g. rankings).

Nominal: represent group names (e.g. brands or species names).

Binary: represent data with a yes/no or 1/0 outcome (e.g. win or lose).

Choose the test that fits the types of predictor and outcome variables you have collected (if you are doing an experiment, these are the independent and dependent variables). Consult the tables below to see which test best matches your variables.

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Choosing a parametric test: regression, comparison, or correlation

Parametric tests usually have stricter requirements than nonparametric tests, and are able to make stronger inferences from the data. They can only be conducted with data that adheres to the common assumptions of statistical tests.

The most common types of parametric test include regression tests, comparison tests, and correlation tests.

Regression tests

Regression tests look for cause-and-effect relationships. They can be used to estimate the effect of one or more continuous variables on another variable.

Predictor variable

Outcome variable

Research question example

Simple linear regression

Continuous

1 predictor

Continuous

1 outcome

What is the effect of

income

on

longevity

?

Multiple linear regression

Continuous

2 or more predictors

Continuous

1 outcome

What is the effect of

income

and

minutes of exercise per day

on

longevity

?

Logistic regression

Continuous

Binary

What is the effect of

drug dosage

on the

survival of a test subject

?

Comparison tests

Comparison tests look for differences among group means. They can be used to test the effect of a categorical variable on the mean value of some other characteristic.

T-tests are used when comparing the means of precisely two groups (e.g., the average heights of men and women). ANOVA and MANOVA tests are used when comparing the means of more than two groups (e.g., the average heights of children, teenagers, and adults).

Predictor variable

Outcome variable

Research question example

Paired t-test

Categorical

1 predictor

Quantitative

groups come from the same population

What is the effect of

two different test prep programs

on the

average exam scores

for students from the same class?

Independent t-test

Categorical

1 predictor

Quantitative

groups come from different populations

What is the difference in

average exam scores

for students from

two different schools

?

ANOVA

Categorical

1 or more predictor

Quantitative

1 outcome

What is the difference in

average pain levels

among post-surgical patients given

three different painkillers?

MANOVA

Categorical

1 or more predictor

Quantitative

2 or more outcome

What is the effect of

flower species

on

petal length

,

petal width

, and

stem length

?

Correlation tests

Correlation tests check whether variables are related without hypothesizing a cause-and-effect relationship.

These can be used to test whether two variables you want to use in (for example) a multiple regression test are autocorrelated.

Variables Research question example

Pearson’s r

2 continuous variables

How are

latitude

and

temperature

related?

Choosing a nonparametric test

Non-parametric tests don’t make as many assumptions about the data, and are useful when one or more of the common statistical assumptions are violated. However, the inferences they make aren’t as strong as with parametric tests.

Predictor variable Outcome variable Use in place of…

Spearman’s r

Quantitative

Quantitative

Pearson’s r

Chi square test of independence

Categorical

Categorical

Pearson’s r

Sign test

Categorical

Quantitative

One-sample t-test

Kruskal–Wallis H

Categorical

3 or more groups

Quantitative

ANOVA

ANOSIM

Categorical

3 or more groups

Quantitative

2 or more outcome variables

MANOVA

Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test

Categorical

2 groups

Quantitative

groups come from different populations

Independent t-test

Wilcoxon Signed-rank test

Categorical

2 groups

Quantitative

groups come from the same population

Paired t-test

Flowchart: choosing a statistical test

This flowchart helps you choose among parametric tests. For nonparametric alternatives, check the table above.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

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