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Google Ads: How To Boost Revenue & Optimize For Offline Sales

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How To Calculate Marginal Revenue?

What is the Marginal Revenue Formula?

The marginal revenue formula can help companies calculate how much extra money they can make by selling more units of their existing products. They can use this to decide if they should produce more items of a product and how much they can earn from each additional sale.

Imagine you start a business where you earn money by creating and selling items. If you create one item and sell that one item, you will earn a particular amount. Now, if you start selling more pieces of that product, you will be able to earn a little extra money. This extra revenue is called marginal revenue. So, if you want to calculate how much extra money you can make by selling more pieces of the items, you can use the marginal revenue formula.

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Marginal Revenue Formula

The formula to calculate Marginal Revenue is,

Marginal Revenue (MR) = Change in Revenue / Change in Quantity


Marginal revenue (MR) = (Current Revenue – Initial Revenue) / (Current Quantity – Initial Quantity)

Change in Revenue is the difference between the current income and the initial income the company generated from product sales.

Change in Quantity is the increase or decrease in the number of units that the company sells of the product.

How Does the Formula Help?

Let’s understand how the marginal revenue formula can help businesses maximize their profits. For this, we will use a simple example of a farmer named Emma who grows grapefruits.

Emma sells one grapefruit for $3. So, when she sells two, she earns $6. Then, she decides to sell three grapefruits for $10. In this case, let us use the marginal revenue formula to see how much extra money she made by selling one more grapefruit.

Marginal revenue = change in revenue / change in quantity = (10-6)/(3-2) = 4

So, when we compare the revenue Emma earned from selling 3 grapefruits ($10) and the revenue she earned from selling 2 grapefruits ($6), we can see that she earned an extra $4. This extra money is called “marginal revenue” because it represents the change in revenue from selling one more grapefruit.

Thus, by calculating the marginal revenue, Emma can evaluate whether producing and selling more grapefruits is financially beneficial.

If the marginal revenue is higher than the cost of producing an additional grapefruit, Emma can make more profit by increasing her production. She can decide if she should allocate more resources, such as time and land, to grow additional grapefruits.

On the other hand, if the marginal revenue is lower than the cost, Emma may reconsider expanding her production. Focusing on her current production levels or exploring alternative crops might be more profitable.

Emma can make informed decisions about her grapefruit farming by analyzing the marginal revenue. She can ensure that she earns maximum profit while effectively managing resources.

How to Calculate Marginal Revenue Formula?

Here are the steps you can use to calculate the marginal revenue:

For example, if you sold 10 product units for $5 each, the total revenue would be 10 * $5 = $50.

For instance, if you increase the quantity from 10 to 13 units, you must determine the total revenue earned from selling 13 units. Let’s say the total income from selling 13 units is $65.

Thus, the change in total revenue would be $65 – $50 = $15.

For example, the change in quantity will be 13 – 11 = 3.

Thus, according to the example, the marginal revenue will result from dividing $15 by 3, which equals $5.

Examples of Marginal Revenue Formula

You can download this Marginal Revenue Formula Excel Template here – Marginal Revenue Formula Excel Template

Example #1

Steve Machine Works Pvt Ltd. manufactures office printing & Stationery items. The company is currently planning to introduce the production of a new category of pens. Currently, they are producing 400 pens and selling them at $5 each. They forecast to produce 800 pens and sell them at $10. We need to find the Marginal revenue of Steve Machine Works Pvt Ltd.

Change in revenue = Forecasted Revenue – Current Revenue

=$8,000 – $2,000 = $6,000

Change in Quantity = Forecasted Quantity – Current Quantity

Step 3: Now, we calculate Marginal Revenue using the below formula:

Marginal Revenue (MR)= Change in Revenue / Change in Quantity

= $6,000 / 400 = $15

Note: The below image explains the above marginal revenue calculation in Excel. We have added similar images for all examples in the article for your simpler understanding.

Thus, the marginal revenue of Steve Machine Works Pvt Ltd is $15.

Example #2

Francis & Sons are producing and selling commodities. Currently, they are producing 5,000 units and selling them at $140 each. However, they plan to introduce a new production line and expect to increase the current production by 50%, making it 7500. They will increase the selling price per unit by 40%, making it $196. We need to calculate the marginal revenue for Francis & Sons if they introduce the new production line.

Forecasted Revenue from Production = 7500 * 196 = $14,70,000

=7,500 – 5,000 = 2,500

Example #3

Elens Group of Companies has shown the following details:

Current Production = 1500

Current Revenue = $200,000

Forecasted Production = 3000

Forecasted Revenue = 250,000

Now we need to calculate the marginal revenue for the Elens Group of companies based on the provided data.

So, the Elens Group of Companies has a marginal revenue of $33.

Marginal Revenue Calculator

Use the following calculator for Marginal revenue formula calculations.

Change in Revenue Change in Quantity Marginal Revenue Formula   Marginal Revenue Formula = Change in Revenue = Change in Quantity


= 0


Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost

Marginal revenue is the additional revenue or the change in revenue resulting from selling an extra unit. On the other hand, marginal cost is the additional cost or the change in cost due to producing an extra unit. Marginal revenue helps understand how producing and selling more units will affect a business’s revenue. In contrast, marginal cost helps us know how producing and selling more units will affect the business’s production cost.

Businesses can find the optimal production volume and pricing that maximizes their profitability by comparing marginal revenue and cost. If revenue exceeds cost, producing and selling more units is profitable; otherwise, if revenue is lower than cost, producing additional units may lead to lower profitability or losses.

Marginal Vs. Average Revenue

Marginal Revenue

Average Revenue

Definition It is the additional revenue companies earn from selling one more unit. It is the revenue the company earns on average for each unit they sell.

Formula Change in total revenue / Change in quantity Total revenue / Quantity sold

Interpretation It helps find the perfect level of production or pricing decisions. It helps find the average earning per unit and evaluate the profitability of the overall sales.


It helps in production planning by assessing whether increasing production volume is financially beneficial or not.

It gives an insight into the current demand for a product or service. If the revenue is positive, it indicates a growing market, while negative indicates a declining market.

It helps identify the output level that achieves the highest possible profit by comparing it to marginal cost.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Answer: Yes, marginal revenue can be zero or negative. It depends on specific situations and market conditions. In a competitive market, marginal revenue tends to be positive initially and then declines due to the downward-sloping demand curve. However, in some situations, zero or negative marginal revenue can occur.

Answer: MC or marginal cost refers to the additional cost that occurs by producing one more unit of a product or providing one more unit of service. On the other hand, MR or marginal revenue is the extra revenue you can earn by selling one more unit of a product or service.

Answer: Total revenue is the net income generated by selling goods and services, whereas marginal revenue is the increase in the revenue from selling one extra unit of product or service.

Recommended Articles

This EDUCBA article gives a detailed explanation of the marginal revenue formula. We explain the formula’s uses and relevance using the stepwise guide and comprehensive examples. You can also read the below articles to learn more

Amazon Ppc Challenges Google Ads

The study was conducted by Marin Software, extrapolated from billions of dollars of PPC budgets. Wes MacLaggan, SVP of Marketing at Marin Software offered this insight:

“While Google and Facebook continue to be the most prominent channels for digital ad spend, we’re now seeing more and more early adopters experimenting with Amazon’s ad offerings…”

Google Ads

Google Shopping Ads

Of the billions of dollars of ad spend researched, Google Shopping Ads represented about 27% of the Google Ad spend in US Dollars. Although it fell to 24% during the fourth quarter it regained in the following quarter, essentially staying flat.

Amazon Advertising

Amazon offers Headline Shopping Ads and Sponsored Product Ads. Headline Shopping Ads are more prominent, showing at the very top of the search results. They received a significantly higher CTR of 2.68% versus 0.49% for the Sponsored Product Ads (SPA), yet the SPA represented nearly 80% of the ad spend.

Key Differences Between Google and Amazon 1. Return on Advertising Spend

Mark said,

“Amazon searchers are typically much further along in the purchasing path, and are already in the mindset of wanting to purchase a product. Customer searches tend to be much more specific, and product focused. In Google, customers typically are still in the browsing stages, and wanting to either learn about products, or searching product categories. With customer’s search intentions differing greatly in Amazon vs. Google, it causes your PPC strategies to be much different as well.”

He then elaborated and explained that the Return On Advertising Spend (ROAS) is dramatically better on Amazon. And not just on your own brand name, but across the board on keyword phrases and competitor brand names.

The benefit of the higher ROAS is, according to Mark Jackson of Vizion Interactive:

“This allows your ability to boost incremental sales much higher than in Google.”

2. Algorithms

Amazon’s algorithm factors in things like reviews. This adds an additional layer of complexity to bidding on Amazon versus Google.

3. Ramp Up Time

3. Budget Strategies

A key feature of Amazon is that it is a de facto shopping search engine (much like YouTube is a video search engine). Because of this, consumers are lower on the sales funnel (lower is better).

This affects budget strategy because bidders on Amazon on more specific as opposed to on Google.

Mark Jackson of Vizion Interactive offered this insight:

“In Amazon, customer’s searches are much more specific, causing broader terms to be less utilized (and less expensive). This ends up having a direct effect on the size of budgets you can push in Amazon vs. Google.”

It’s exciting to see competition in PPC. Competition benefits everyone.

Read the interactive Digital Advertising Benchmark Report by Marin Software  here.

Images by Shutterstock, Modified by Author

Screenshots by Author

Facebook, Microsoft & Google Ads Compared

If you have to choose between Facebook and Google Ads for promoting your SMB, Facebook is your best bet.

And in the debate between Microsoft Advertising and Google Ads, Google provides greater reach at a lower cost.

These are among the key findings of a new study by Cambridge University MBA students and ad platform Adzooma.

The study also considered whether landing page quality had an impact on conversion rates, and revealed new CPC and CPM benchmarks for Facebook, Microsoft, and Google Ads.

Which Factors Moved the Needle Most for Ad Performance

Facebook Ads was the most cost-effective channel on average.

Microsoft Ads was most responsive to increasing ad spend.

Google Ads had the greatest reach for the lowest cost.

How CPM and CPC Differ on Facebook, Microsoft, and Google Ads

Upon determining this connection between channel and cost KPIs, researchers went looking for the average CPM and CPC across Google, Facebook and Microsoft Ads:

This is because 54% of Bing users are over the age of 45, and a third of them have a household income of over $100,000.

How Increasing Ad Spend Impacts ROAS

Here’s what they found:

Microsoft Advertising showed the greatest ROAS for increasing budget in terms of impressions, a good metric for brand awareness campaigns.

How Sentiment Impacts Ad Performance on Google and Microsoft Ads

The opposite was true on Google Ads, where negative sentiment won the day with CTRs of:

Study participant Sunil Grewal, formerly of Amazon, said:

Landing Page Quality Had Greatest Impact on Conversion, Yet Few Excel Here

Srishti Warman, formerly an associate VP at Barclays Bank and an MBA Star winner at the Women of the Future Awards, was responsible for the study’s landing page analysis.

She explains:

“The task was to identify the key parameters that lead to a higher conversion e.g. faster page speed, better optimisation for mobile and web viewing, page responsiveness, etc. This analysis would eventually help understand not only which companies scale quickest within verticals, but critically, why.”

Warman found that although landing page best practices had the greatest impact on conversion rate, not a single one of those tested had perfect score for best practices in Lighthouse.

These best practices included using HTTPS, displaying images with correct aspect ratios, serving images with appropriate resolution, and avoiding a request for location on page loading.

Only 5% of landing pages had a perfect score for website performance checks.

That means that 95% of businesses are leaving money on the table.

Warman also noted that she was surprised to see that optimization best practices outperformed page loading speed as the most important factor in driving conversions.

In addition to the primary landing page factors studied—best practices, SEO, performance, and accessibility—Warman identified content quality, CTAs, and the PPC to landing page journey as impactful for improving conversion.

Key Takeaways from Facebook Ads v. Microsoft Advertising v. Google Ads Comparison

Facebook is, on average, the most cost-effective channel for SMBs.

Ads with positive sentiment perform better on Microsoft, and negative sentiment performs better on Google Ads.

Best practices were the most important conversion element for landing pages, followed by SEO (titles and meta descriptions, valid chúng tôi ensuring links are crawlable, etc.).


Study participants were given access to anonymized campaign data from the Adzooma platform, selected at random and spanning thousands of accounts and a variety of industries.

Participants used Lighthouse to evaluate landing page quality, as well as SEMrush, Screaming Frog, Adzooma, and Google Analytics.


Image source: All screenshots by author, February 2023

How To Earn More Adsense Revenue? – Webnots

A decade back it was to apply and get approval for Google AdSense program. However, nowadays Google AdSense became the darling of publishers and the approval also become stringent. The task will not be over if you got the approval after difficulties. You have to continue monitoring and adjust the placements to increase the revenue. Fortunately, Google also puts lot of efforts to earn more AdSense revenue for publishers

Why Try AdSense?

If you are hesitating to use AdSense due to the impact on site speed, here are some reasons you should try today.

1. AdSense Shows Highest Bid Ad

The ad script on the page will send ad requests to the nearest Google server. Based on the received request Google server will start the bidding auction and get highest bidder’s ad asynchronously. Users on your site will see the text or image ad that will generate maximum revenue for the ad request. In this way, you can earn more AdSense revenue from each ad request sent from your sites.

AdSense Performance Reports

You can use Google Search Console and Google Analytics to monitor the revenue by geographical locations. Using these tools, you can target your traffic from where you get more visitors. It is also possible to monitor based on the search queries leading visitors to your site, operating system, browser used to view your site and device used like Desktop, Tablet or Mobile.

2. Earn More with Search Box

Earlier you have to create custom Google Search box, now you can do this within in your AdSense account. Learn how to add custom Google Search Box to your site. AdSense for search offers you the following:

Choose the site to search – You have an option to choose your site, a collection of sites you own or the entire web.

You can also prioritize and restrict searches to specific sections of sites.

The option to host the results on your site or have Google host them for you.

When using AdSense for Search, you can setup a custom search page on your website and use Google search function to return search results. The results will be similar to those you see on chúng tôi website. Google uses the same algorithm, which takes words and phrases included in the query and matches them to relevant ad campaigns. In this way, you can get similar revenue like Google by using search box on your site.

3. Tips for More AdSense Revenue

Even Google AdSense is the one of the highest paying programs for webmasters, the sole responsibility of making use of it lies with publisher’s hand. You need not own a site with millions of daily page views to earn handsome money from AdSense. Generally optimizing your site for better user and search engine experience is more than sufficient to attract and retain nominal traffic for earning handsome money from AdSense.

3.1. Generic Tips:

Do it yourself – it may take sometime but the yield will be big at the end.

Not try any cheap tricks, after all its for money and be honest to yourself.

Do not expect huge income with few days of effort, it may take a year for you to create a site of 200 pages on your own and bring enough traffic. Therefore, revenue will also grow slowly based on your traffic level.

Do not copy other people’s content, this will not help you in long run or you will be banned for life time.

3.2. Specific Tips:

Make sure to place the ad codes on appropriate places on your web pages.

Optimize your site for Search Engines and do not try free traffic exchanges.

4. CPC and CPM 5. Use Auto Ads Final Words

Compared to the effort required for affiliate marketing and direct selling, you can rely on Google AdSense to make your life’s earnings. Though the revenue may be low at the start, it will grow when you start getting good traffic to your site.

15 Google Chrome Tricks To Boost Your Productivity

Google Chrome is unquestionably the most popular web browser out there, despite there being a number of solid alternatives. And that shouldn’t be surprising, given the robust set of features it possesses, such as deep integration with other Google services, a minimal UI, and much more. Now, I’m sure you all are pretty familiar with (most of) Google Chrome’s features. But is that all?

New Tab: Spawn a new browser tab, immediately right to the active one.

Reload: Refresh the content of the currently active tab.

Duplicate: Create a new tab to the right, with the same content as that of the active tab.

Pin Tab: Permanently pin a tab to the browser. Pinned tabs are moved to the left of all the other tabs, and stay pinned even when the browser is closed.

Mute Tab: Mute the audio playing in the tab. Obviously, this works only if the tab is playing some sound (Indicated by a little speaker icon on).

Close Tab, Close Other Tabs, Close Tabs To The Right: Self explanatory.

Reopen Closed Tab: Open the most recently closed tab, and load up the webpage loaded in it at the time of closing.

2. Perform calculations, unit conversions etc., directly from the Omnibox

The Omnibox, which is the combined search and address bar of Google Chrome, is a pretty versatile tool in itself. You can use it to quickly perform everything from basic arithmetic calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplications, etc) to unit conversions (Currency conversions, Miles to Kilometres, Pound to Kilogram, etc) of nearly every unit type. It can even be used to quickly compose email (using the configured default email client), and add events to your Google calendar.

To perform an arithmetic calculation, simply type it in the Omnibox, followed by the equal to (=) sign, and the result will be displayed in the drop down box, in real-time. Cool, isn’t it?

As of the latest tested version of Google Chrome (version 47), pinned websites act as desktop apps, and open up in their own windows, without any obtrusive browser UI elements, such as address bar and navigation buttons. How cool is that?

5. Essential Chrome keyboard shortcuts that you must use

Almost all desktop and web applications support keyboard shortcuts, given how handy they are, and Google Chrome is no different. It includes support for dozens of keyboard shortcuts, and these can be used to do everything from managing/navigating tabs, to clearing browser history. Here are some of the most useful ones:

Ctrl+Shift+N : Open a new window in Incognito mode.

Ctrl+Shift+T : Reopen the last closed tab. Up to 10 recently closed tabs are remembered.

Shift+Esc : Open Google Chrome’s task manager.

Alt+Enter : After typing a URL: Open URL in a new tab.

Ctrl/Shift+F5 : Reload the current page, ignoring cached content.

6. Use extensions to make Chrome do much more than just browsing the web.

If you use Google Chrome, it’s pretty much a given that you use a couple of extensions. The Chrome Web Store includes hundreds of thousands such useful extensions, and these let you use Google Chrome for a diverse range of purposes. Some extremely handy extensions include chúng tôi URL Shortner, which makes it easy to create short links for sharing, and LastPass, that lets you securely save and manage all your web account passwords. Want even more? Check out the list of 35 best Google Chrome extensions we’ve compiled.

7. Run extensions in Incognito mode

The Incognito Mode in Google Chrome lets you browse the web privately, without having to worry about your browsing history (and other data) being saved by the browser. However, by default, the installed extensions don’t work in Incognito Mode.

8. Customize New Tab page to show useful information

By default, the New Tab page of Google Chrome is rather plain and dull looking. However, you can use numerous tab customization extensions available in the Chrome Web Store to not only make it more attractive, but also a lot more useful. These extensions make it possible to add information such as clock, current temperature, upcoming calendar events etc. to the New Tab Page. Take a look at the companion screenshot above, illustrating the New Tab page, as customized by Momentum, one such extension.

9. Block certain websites in Chrome 10. Quickly search any image using Google reverse image lookup

11. Remotely access other computers from Chrome

Remote Desktop Access is a pretty convenient method of securely controlling/sharing a remote computer over the network. There are many applications available for it, such as Teamviewer (the most widely known), or its many alternatives, but if you want, you can even use Google Chrome to view/control a remote computer over the network.

12. Enable hidden browser features using Chrome Flags

Want to unlock the hidden potential of Google Chrome? Check out Flags. Essentially, flags are experimental Google Chrome features (hidden under the chrome://flags page) that are not yet ready for prime time. Consequently they can change, or even stop working altogether with subsequent browser updates. However, they sure can impart lots of cool added functionalities to the browser, such as automatic password generation, multilingual spell-checking tools, and more. There are lots of Google Chrome flags available for you to play with, if you wanna live on the bleeding edge of the browser’s tech. Just make sure to use them carefully, or you may end up with a non-functional browser.

13. View listing of cached webpages in Chrome

Like any web browser, Google Chrome also saves local copies of webpages that you access, to speed up future page load times. And if you want to view the listing of all those cached webpages, all you have to do is go to the “chrome://cache” (without quotes) system URL. Take a look at the screenshot below:

14. Use Chrome as quick notepad

15. Manage running tabs & extensions with Chrome’s Task Manager

SEE ALSO: 20 Cool Microsoft Edge Tips And Tricks


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