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Data scientists spend around 40% of their time on data preparation and cleaning. It was 80% in 2024, according to a report by Forbes. There seems to be an improvement thanks to automation tools but data preparation still constitutes a large part of data science work. This is because getting the best possible results from a machine learning model depends on data quality and creating better features can help provide better quality data.

In this article, we’ll explore what feature engineering is, what are its techniques, and how you can improve feature engineering efficiency.

What is feature engineering?

Feature engineering is the process of transforming raw data into useful features. 

Real-world data is almost always messy. Before deploying a machine learning algorithm to work on it, the raw data must be transformed into a suitable form. This is called data preprocessing and feature engineering is a component of this process.

A feature refers to an attribute of data that is relevant to the problem that you would like to solve with the data and the machine learning model. So, the process of creating features depends on the problem, available data, and deployed machine learning algorithm. Therefore, it would not be useful to create the same features from a dataset for two different problems. In addition, different algorithms require different types of features for optimal performance.

What are feature engineering processes?

Feature engineering can involve:

Feature construction: Constructing new features from the raw data. Feature construction requires a good knowledge of the data and the underlying problem to be solved with the data.

Feature selection: Selecting a subset of available features that are most relevant to the problem for model training.

Feature extraction: Creating new and more useful features by combining and reducing the number of existing features. Principal component analysis (PCA) and embedding are some methods for feature extraction.

What are some feature engineering techniques?

Some common techniques of feature engineering include:

One-hot encoding

Most ML algorithms cannot work with categorical data and require numerical values. For instance, if you have a ‘Color’ column in your tabular dataset and the observations are “Red”, “Blue” and “Green”, you may need to convert these into numerical values for the model to better process it. However, labeling “Red” = 1, “Blue” = 2, and “Green” = 3 is not enough because there is not an ordered relation between colors (i.e. blue is not two times red).

Instead, one-hot encoding involves creating two columns for being “Red” and “Blue”. if an observation is red, it takes 1 in the “Red” column and 0 in “Blue”. If it is green, it takes 0 in both columns and the model deduces that it is green.


Log-transformation is replacing each value in a column with its logarithm. It is a useful method to handle skewed data as shown in the image below. Log-transformation can transform the distribution to approximately normal and decrease the effects of the outliers. Fitting a linear predictive model, for instance, would give more accurate results after transformation because the relationship between the two variables is closer to linear after transformation.

Outlier handling

Outliers are observations that are distant from other observations. They can be due to errors or be genuine observations. Whatever the reason, it is important to identify them because machine learning models are sensitive to the range and distribution of values. The image below demonstrates how outliers drastically change a linear model’s fit.

The outlier handling method depends on the dataset. Suppose you work with a dataset with house prices in a region. If you know that a house’s price cannot exceed a certain amount in that region and if there are observations above that value, you can

remove those observations because they are probably erroneous

replace outlier values with mean or median of the attribute


Binning, or discretization, is grouping observations under ‘bins’. Converting ages of individuals to age groups or grouping countries according to their continent are examples of binning. The decision for binning depends on what you are trying to obtain from the data.

Binning can prevent overfitting, which happens when a model performs well with training data but poorly with other data. On the other hand, it sacrifices granular information about data.

Handling missing values

Missing values are among the most common problems of the data preparation process. There may be due to error, unavailability of the data, or privacy reasons. A significant portion of machine learning algorithms are designed to work with complete data so you should handle missing values in a dataset. If not, the model can automatically drop those observations which can be undesirable.

For handling missing values, also called imputation, you can:

fill missing observations with mean/median of the attribute if it is numerical.

fill with the most frequent category if the attribute is categorical.

use ML algorithms to capture the structure of data and fill the missing values accordingly.

predict the missing values if you have domain knowledge about the data.

drop the missing observations.

Feature scaling

Feature scaling is standardizing the range of numerical features of the data. Consider these two examples:

Suppose that you have a weight column with some values in kilograms and others in tons. Without scaling, an algorithm can consider 2000 kilograms to be greater than 10 tons.

Suppose you have two columns for individuals in your dataset: age and height, with values ranging between 18-80 and 152-194, respectively. Without scaling, an algorithm doesn’t have a criteria to compare these values and is likely to weight larger values higher and weigh smaller values as lower, regardless of the unit of the values.

There are two common methods for scaling numerical data:

Normalization (or Min-Max Normalization): Vales are rescaled between 0 and 1.

Standardization (or Z-score Normalization): Values are rescaled so that it has a distribution with a 0 mean and variance equal to 1.

Why is it important now?

Feature engineering is an integral part of every machine learning application because created and selected features have a great impact on model performance. Features that are relevant to the problem and appropriate for the model would increase model accuracy. Irrelevant features, on the other hand, would result in “Garbage in-Garbage out” situation in data analysis and machine learning.

How to increase feature engineering efficiency?

Feature engineering is a process that is time-consuming, error-prone, and demands domain knowledge. It depends on the problem, the dataset, and the model so there is not a single method that solves all feature engineering problems. However, there are some methods to automate the feature creation process:

However, it should be noted that automated feature engineering tools use algorithms and may not be able to incorporate valuable domain knowledge that a data scientist may have.

If you have other questions about feature engineering for machine learning and automated ML solutions, don’t hesitate to contact us:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





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Accessibility Testing In Software Engineering

part of it.

People with impairments utilize assistive technology to help them operate software. Here are some examples of such software −

Speech Recognition Software – It converts spoken words to text, which is then used as input by the computer.

Screen reader software – This program is used to read aloud the text that is shown on the screen.

Screen Magnification Software – This software is used to expand the monitor and make reading easier for visually challenged people.

Special Keyboard – Users with motor control issues will benefit from a special keyboard designed for simple typing.

You will learn the following in this tutorial −

What is accessibility testing?

Why is accessibility testing necessary?

Which disabilities to support?

How do you perform accessibility testing?

Tools for Testing Accessibility

Accessibility Testing Myths

Why is accessibility testing necessary?

Reason 1 − Cater to the Disabled Market.

Disability affects around 20% of the population.

One out of every ten persons has a severe handicap.

One in every two persons over the age of 65 has diminished skills.

Blindness, deafness, handicapping, and other bodily diseases are examples of disabilities.

If a software product is made accessible to the disabled, it may appeal to this large market. Accessibility problems in software can be overcome if Accessibility Testing is integrated into the standard software testing life cycle.

Reason 2 − Comply with Accessibility Laws

Government authorities all across the globe have issued legalizations requiring challenged persons to be able to use IT goods.

The following are legal acts enacted by various governments –

United States − Americans with Disabilities Act – 1990

United Kingdom − Disability Discrimination Act – 1995

Australia − Disability Discrimination Act – 1992

Ireland − Disability Act of 2005

Legal compliance necessitates accessibility testing.

Reason 3 − Avoid Potential Legal Action

In the past, Fortune 500 businesses have been prosecuted because their goods were not accessible to people with disabilities. Here are a few notable examples.

National Federation for the Blind (NFB) vs Amazon (2007)

Sexton and NFB vs. Target (2007)

NFB Vs AOL settlement (1999)

It is preferable to design goods that assist the disabled in order to prevent potential litigation.

Which disabilities to support?

The application must assist persons with impairments such as –

Type of DisabilityDescriptionVision Disability

Blindness, color blindness, or vision problems

Visual issues such as visual strobe and flashing effect issues

Physical Disability

Unable to operate the mouse or keyboard with one hand.

Hand motions and muscular sluggishness, which are examples of poor motor abilities.

Cognitive disability

Learning Difficulties, Poor Memory, or inability to comprehend increasingly complicated circumstances

Literacy Disability

Problems in reading

Hearing Disability

Auditory issues such as deafness and hearing loss

Inability to hear or inability to hear clearly

How do you perform accessibility testing?

There are two techniques to do accessibility testing −



The following points must be validated before the program may be utilized by all users. This list is used to complete accessibility testing.

Is there a keyboard replacement for all mouse actions and windows in an application?

Whether instructions are included in user documentation or a manual? Is it simple to learn and use the program using the documentation?

Is it possible to organize tabs rationally to guarantee seamless navigation?

Is it possible to have shortcut keys for menus?

Is the program compatible with all operating systems?

Is the response time of each screen or page clearly stated so that End Users know how long they will have to wait?

Is it possible that all labels in the application are appropriately written?

Is the application’s color adjustable for all users?

Whether pictures or symbols are utilized correctly so that end users may readily understand them?

Is it possible for an application to include audio alerts?

Is it possible for a user to change the audio or visual controls?

Is it possible for a user to alter the default fonts for printing and text displays?

Is it possible for the user to change or deactivate flashing, rotating, or moving displays?

Is it possible to see highlighting with reversed colors? Color testing in the application by varying the contrast ratio

Is it possible for persons with disabilities to hear audio and visual content? All multimedia pages on websites with no speakers should be tested.

Is training given for users with impairments so that they can become acquainted with the program or application?

Because testers are inexperienced with impairments, accessibility testing may be difficult. It is preferable to deal with handicapped persons who have special requirements in order to comprehend their difficulties.

Depending on the impairment, there are many methods for testing accessibility. We’ll understand them all one by one.

1. Vision Disability

Let’s pretend I don’t have the capacity to see. I am entirely blind, and I needed to get to “ABC” Website. In such situation, what do you think are your options? There is a one-word option called “Screen reader”. What exactly is this Screen Reader? It is a piece of software that is used to narrate online material. Essentially, what is on your website?, whether it is text, a link, a radio button, images, a video, or something else. Everything will be narrated for me by a screen reader. There are a plethora of Screen Readers present like “Jaws”.

Basically, if you launch Jaws or another screen reader and then navigate to a webpage, it will narrate the entire text to you. For example, if I launch Jaws and then the browser, Jaws will announce: “Mozilla Firefox start page”; if I go to the address bar, Jaws will announce: “ADDRESS BAR”; and then put chúng tôi into the address bar, Jaws will read aloud everything text by text.

Now if a website is badly planned and built, it is conceivable (and often does) that jaws will be unable to narrate proper material, resulting in inaccessibility for Blind People. (For example, if Jaws is narrating a link as content, a blind person would never realize it’s a link, and if it’s a critical one for that website, n that situation, website business would suffer a significant loss.

Visual Impairment

Under the heading of vision impairment, I’d like to highlight two groups. Color Blindness is the first. Color blindness is defined as not being fully blind but being unable to see a certain color adequately. Red and blue are the most frequent hues that persons with color blindness cannot see well. So, if I have red color blindness and want to utilize a website that is 80 percent red, what should I do? Would I feel at ease on that website? No.

As a result, a website should be constructed in such a way that a person with color blindness may easily view it. Consider a basic example of a red button. If it is highlighted in black, it will be more visible. Then it is simple to access. Normally, black and white are thought to be universal.

Poor Vision Disability

The second point is that a person with bad vision or with other eyesight problems (there are numerous eye problems connected to the retina, etc.) cannot visit any site.

1) In such circumstances, it is preferable to avoid using tiny font because it would be extremely beneficial to those with poor eyesight.

2) In addition, persons with vision problems would like to be able to zoom in on the text on the website to make it more pleasant for them. As a result, a website should be built in such a way that when expanding it, the layout does not break when magnifying the text. Otherwise, they will be left with a negative impression.

Other Disability

Browsing the Website without the use of a Mouse is a critical consideration in Accessibility Testing for Disabled Audiences. A user should be able to fully access the website by using the keyboard to access the links, buttons, radio buttons, checkboxes, pop-ups, dropdowns, and all other controls.

For example, if I am right-handed paraplegic and am not familiar with or refuse using a mouse, what should I do? In that situation, if I am unable to access links or checkboxes on the site using the keyboard, what should I do? As a result, a website should be fully accessible through Keyboard.

User with Hearing Impairment

A deaf person can visit the website since he can see the material on it. However, when it comes to audio and video, they run into problems. As a result, there should be Alt text for any video and audio. Alt text is an abbreviation for alternative text. Assume there is a video showing how to book an airplane ticket. In that scenario, the text should be included so that a deaf person may read it and understand what the film is about.

Tools for Testing Accessibility

It is critical that your webpage be easily accessible in order to make it more accepted and user-friendly. There are numerous accessibility testing tools available to assess the website’s accessibility.

Some of the most common Accessibility Testing Tools are as follows −


WEBAIM’s Wave is a free web accessibility tool. It is used to manually verify the web page for several areas of accessibility. This tool is useful for checking intranet, password-protected, dynamically created, or sensitive web sites. Web Accessibility Toolbar’s main tasks include recognizing webpage components, giving access to alternate views of page content, and simplifying the usage of third-party online apps. It guarantees that all accessibility reporting is completely confidential and safe.


TAW is an online tool for assessing your website’s accessibility. This tool examines the website in compliance with W3C web accessibility rules and displays concerns with accessibility. Priority 1 problems are prioritized, followed by priority 2 problems, and finally, priority 3 concerns are prioritized. TAW’s ability to produce subsets of WCAG 1.0 to test against is an intriguing capability. You may use the TAW tool to evaluate a single page or several pages by “spidering” a website. TAW also lets us create extra tests using the “User Checking” dialogue box.

Accessibility Valet

It is a program that enables you to assess the adherence of web pages with the WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines). All HTML reporting options display your markup in a normalized format, indicating deprecated, bogus, and legal markup as well as misplaced components. This utility has a number of features, including

Developers will benefit from detailed reports.

Executive summary for Quality Assurance and Management

Metadata for the semantic web and the World Wide Web

Html to XHtml conversion and automatic cleaning

Accessibility Developer Tools

It’s a Google Chrome extension. It also does an accessibility audit. The audit findings reveal that the Page under Test violates accessibility standards. The quick examination of the web page because there are several great accessibility toolbars. It will identify different difficulties with your page, warn you about potential concerns, and indicate sections of the page that may benefit from ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications).


This is an IBM program that mimics the condition of visually impaired persons in order for designers to better understand the requirements of readers such as Jaws. It instructs viewers on how to read the web page.

Web accessibility toolbar

WAT is an Internet Explorer or Opera plugin that provides web page designers with important tools for web page inspection. One of the greatest features is the Grayscale function, which assists in locating low contrast areas in the design.


Accessibility testing in software engineering aids in making your program accessible to people with disabilities. If adhering to accessibility rules is impossible owing to the difficulty of your web application, create two versions of the website − one for ordinary users and one for disabled users.

Positive Affect And Decision Processes: Recent Theoretical Developments

Once consumers begin to perceive and feel a need, they develop an inner desire or drive to take action in order to meet the need. Motivation is defined as the inner need and impelling action to put out attempts to meet the need and attempt at fulfilment. When a consumer understands that there is a condition of perceived lack (need), it is converted into a choice of possibilities (wants) from which the consumer may choose. The need/desire creates tension in the consumer’s thinking and an impulse to act (buy/consume) in order to meet the need or want. This emerges as a goal, which is actually the activity (act to acquire or consume), which ends the impulse to act.

The whole action may result in sentiments of happiness, indifference, or discontent. So, the study of consumer behaviour begins with an individual recognising a need and taking action to meet it. What he seeks is an ultimate objective, namely the fulfilment of a need/want.

Theoretical Developments

It holds great promise for expanding understanding customer loyalty, relationship marketing, and many other aspects of customer satisfaction as −

Affect and Focus of Attention

Affect, and attention focus has been studied for decades, but their form historically differed from what is being studied now. In the 1950s, for example, Easterbrook claimed that arousal or worry, referred to as “emotion,” limited the focus of attention and lowered cue usage. Such a viewpoint was highly compatible with a line of thought emerging in the prior decades that viewed excessive motivation, “Drive” (D), or arousal as lowering cue usage and potentially interfering with performance. This interest originated from an earlier hypothesis that too much motivation or arousal—later to be conceived as the emotion of anxiety—resulted in impaired performance.

It appears that affect (feeling) and arousal were frequently considered equivalent and intertwined with motivation. At least one thinker mainly held that affect and arousal were synonymous and that emotion had no essential role other than motivation in the form of arousal. Affect, arousal, and motivation have gradually been differentiated and researched individually, while some overlap exists. In common usage, for example, anxiety, a negative affective state, is sometimes dubbed “arousal” (also known as “stress”), and it is sometimes considered that high arousal is negative in feeling tone.

The Flexibility Hypothesis

The flexibility theory says that people with positive affect are more flexible than others and can see things both ways or switch between broad and narrow focus or typical and non-typical viewpoints, as suitable in the context. For example, in three studies that looked at the influence of positive affect on the unusualness and range of word associations to common, neutral words, it was discovered that people in positive affect did not lose the more common associates when they showed more unusual associates and a broader range of first associates to neutral words.

Concerning the topic of broad and narrow focus, this type of flexibility is proposed to characterize people in a mild positive affective state so that the fact that they may tend to look at the bigger picture first, broaden their view, or integrate context into their conceptualization does not imply that they cannot focus or are limited to only the broad level of focus.

The finding of asymmetry in the effects of positive affect on positive and negative stimuli reported by Barone and Miniard is an example of a phenomenon found repeatedly in the affect literature and has significant implications for understanding the processes associated with positive affect. Positive affect was found to be an effective cue for positive material, whereas negative affect, particularly sadness, was not found to cue harmful material or did so to a much lesser extent than positive affect; similarly, the effect of positive affect on behavior such as helping and generosity was more apparent than the effect of negative affect on behavior, which did not simply produce the opposite effects.

Distractibility False Memory

Another ongoing line of research stemming from one possible generalization of the affect-flexibility link is the hypothesis that positive affect causes false memory. The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm has been used to study false memory. Participants in this process are shown various lists of semantically related terms (e.g., “snow,” “winter,” “ice,” and so on) that are also connected to an essential item (e.g., “cold”) that is not shown.

Then they are given a recognition test in which they are asked whether each word was previously presented, including the critical word (the one related to the theme of the presented words but was not itself presented). They are asked to say whether each word in the test was previously presented or not. The test for “false memory” is whether the essential word is incorrectly assessed as having previously been presented. According to the cognitive psychology literature, this type of false recall is prevalent, with people generally making this error as frequently as they correctly identify words that have been presented.

Cognitive Monitoring and Meta Cognition The Dopamine Hypothesis

These findings and recommendations for monitoring and metacognition are also consistent with the dopamine hypothesis of positive affect’s influence on cognitive processes. This notion can aid in understanding the positive affect’s facilitative effect on thinking processes. It has been claimed that good affect is associated with the production of dopamine in the brain, which stimulates regions of the brain known to be associated with thinking, working memory, attentional flexibility, and other relevant cognitive functions.

The rising amount of study on social cognitive neuroscience is beyond the scope of this chapter; however, given the context of these notions concerning positive affect’s improving processes such as monitoring, it is crucial to note at least the dopamine hypothesis. Participants improved ability to consider multiple factors in the situation, including long-term welfare rather than just immediate pleasant feelings, ability to monitor and keep track of several factors in the situation simultaneously, and other indicators of more complex cognitive processing may be attributed to activation of frontal brain regions. Although space constraints prevent us from discussing social cognitive neuroscience, it is undeniably an intriguing addition to the consumer research literature.

The findings on metacognition and monitoring may also be relevant to self-control issues. Self-control is frequently examined in this context—refraining from some activity. It can also be related to sticking to a difficult or unpleasant task or competing with a more appealing task—staying at work studying when a buddy calls and proposes going to the movies. Nevertheless, self-control can also include maintaining mental attention, organizing cognitive data according to a method for remembering or working with it, and monitoring to ensure one remains on target or on task.


It is commonly understood that theoretical concerns can have significant practical repercussions, which is to be expected. Such implications have been discovered in the field of affect and cognition, where essential findings regarding affect’s influence on thought processes have been investigated in applied contexts such as consumer behavior, managerial decision-making, and medical decision-making and have been found to contribute to our understanding of the processes that underpin critical phenomena in applied domains.

Top 20 Email Marketing Growth Hacking Techniques

You’re wondering: is email marketing effective?

The answer is a resounding yes! But don’t just take our word for it – let’s look at the hard data. You’ve read a lot of statistics and case studies that suggest how big companies may benefit from email marketing, but you haven’t yet tasted any of that success yourself.

According to the Direct Marketing Association, email marketing has an ROI of 4,300%.

What’s more, a study by McKinsey & Company found that email is 40 times better at acquiring new customers than Facebook and Twitter combined.

You may ask whether email marketing is worthwhile as a small business owner. You’ve probably been inundated with emails from companies trying to sell you things, and it can be hard to see how this could work for your business. But email marketing is still one of the most effective ways to reach customers and grow your business.

Email marketing lets you reach a large audience fast and easily. It’s affordable, and you can get people in your local area and worldwide. You can also target specific groups of people to know that your message is reaching the right people.

Email marketing is a great way to stay in touch with your customers and tell them about new products, special offers, and events. It’s also a great way to build relationships with potential customers and create a sense of community around your business.

Email marketing is a vital part of any digital marketing strategy. But how can you ensure that your emails are being read and driving results?

If you’re unsure how to get started with email marketing, in this article, learn the Top 20 Email Marketing Growth Hacking Techniques That Work in 2023.

You won’t regret it for sure!

Why Do You Need Growth Hacks? 

Growth hacking is a term often used in business and marketing, but what does it mean?

Essentially, a growth hacker always looks for new and innovative ways to grow a business. They are constantly testing and experimenting with different marketing strategies and tactics to find the most effective and efficient way to scale a business.

Growth hacking is about thinking outside the box and being creative with your marketing efforts. It’s about trying new things and seeing what works while also being quick to adapt and change course if something isn’t working.

One of the reasons why growth hacking is so important is because it can help businesses grow quickly and efficiently. In today’s competitive business world, it’s essential to scale a company soon to stay ahead of the competition.

Growth hacking can also generate buzz and excitement around a new product or service.

These hacks are for you for those who don’t have a large budget or a lot of time to spend but still need to see significant development.

This is why they’re so essential. Small companies and startups don’t have a lot of cash to invest in growing their business, but they want more consumers and increased income nonetheless.

Hacks are extremely popular among techies. They’re not only used to get free stuff; they’re also employed to gain access to restricted or hidden features. These hacks are especially relevant for individuals working in the IT sector, who use them almost exclusively. Naturally, any business owner at any game phase can benefit from them.

The Best 20 Email Marketing Growth Hacks for Your Business

The good news is that you may utilize many growth hacks to boost your campaigns’ effectiveness. It is an essential resource that explains the many strategies and tactics for increasing online sales, customer loyalty, and brand awareness. It covers everything from learning how to write emails that convert to determining when it’s best to send emails and maintaining a consistent routine.

Let us Get Started!

Top 20 Email Marketing Growth Hacking Techniques 1. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Engage Your Users With Automated Emails

Engagement is one of the most important parts of a successful email marketing campaign. You want to make sure that your subscribers are reading your emails and taking action on them. One way to do this is to send automated emails. Automated emails are emails triggered by a certain measure the user takes, such as signing up for a newsletter or making a purchase. 

By sending these types of emails, you can increase the chances that your subscribers will read and take action on your emails.

There are a few additional ways to automate your email marketing.

One way is to use an email service provider that offers automation. MailChimp, for example, has an automation feature called “autoresponders”. You can set up autoresponders to send emails after someone subscribes to your list or when they take a certain action, such as making a purchase.

The next way to automate email marketing is using a tool like Zapier IFTTT. These tools allow you to connect your email account to other services and apps to automate your email marketing based on the actions that those other services and apps take. For example, you could set up a zap so that every time someone tweets with a certain hashtag, they will receive an email from you.

You could, for example, use email marketing automation to customize your emails and produce templates for specific messages. You have enough on your plate to ensure that your business succeeds right now. Email marketing automation is similar to having another employee. It does a lot of important things for you with very little effort. Isn’t it great to have that?

2. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Call ThemTto Take Action 

For example, you could say something like, “For a limited time, get 20% off your first purchase.”

Another way to create a CTA is to use images that link to your website or sign-up page. In your email signature, you can also include a call to action.

Another way to encourage people to take action is to make it easy for them to do so. For example, you can include a “subscribe” button in your email or make it easy for recipients to forward your email to a friend.

Finally, you can increase the chances that people will act by personalizing your emails. For example, you can address each recipient by name or mention something specific about their interests.

You can encourage more people to sign up for your email list or take other desired actions using call-to-action techniques. By making it easy for recipients to take action and personalize your emails, you can increase the chances that people will respond to your call-to-action.

These are the grades of a good CTA:

1. Relevancy: The CTA should be relevant to the content of the email or webpage.

For example, if you’re promoting a new product, your CTA should invite recipients to learn more about the product.

2. Clarity: The CTA should be clear and concise.

For example, “Learn More,” “Sign Up Now,” or “Download the eBook” are all clear CTAs.

3. Value: The CTA should offer value to the reader.

For example, “Download our free eBook on the top 10 email marketing growth hacking techniques” offers value because it’s something the reader can use.

4. Actionable: The CTA should be actionable, meaning that it should encourage the reader to take a specific action.

For example, “Sign up for our free email course on the top 10 email marketing growth hacking techniques” is actionable because it tells the reader exactly what they need to do.

5. Urgency: The CTA should create a sense of urgency, so the reader is encouraged to take action immediately.

An optimized CTA can stand out. 

Some common CTA button colours are orange, green, and blue.

A better option would be “Download our free eBook” or “Sign up for our free email course.”

3. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Use The Time To Develop An Accurate Subject Line

Do you want to learn another short but powerful email marketing growth hack? It’s all about the email subject line. We’re sure you’re familiar with the saying, “The subject line is the most important part of the email.” And it’s true!

Think about it this way: the subject line is what gets your email opened. It’s like the headline of an article. You will not read the article if the headline doesn’t interest you. 

The same goes for email subject lines. If it doesn’t interest the reader, they’re not going to open your email.

And if they don’t open your email, they will not see your special message or call to action. Your subject line is your first (and sometimes only) chance to make a good impression on your subscribers. So take some time to get it right!

Emojis, for example, can be successful in some cases. It all depends on the kind of business you run and your target audience.

According to Constant Contact, these are some of the most important components of excellent subject lines: Interesting facts, Clear and short, Strange statistics, Jokes, and puns (as needed) are all popular types of content. 

Here’s a sampling of some great subject lines we’ve seen:

“You won’t believe what happened next!”

“We found the perfect gift for you!”

“Can you guess what this is?”

As you can see, email subject lines that are mysterious, intriguing, or make use of emojis can be effective in getting your email opened. So don’t be afraid to experiment with different subject lines to see what works best for your business and your customers.

4. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: To Capitalize on FOMO, Use Dynamic Content

If you’re looking for ways to take your email marketing to the next level, consider using dynamic content to leverage FOMO (fear of missing out). 

Personalizing your email content based on each subscriber’s interests ensures that everyone feels like they’re getting something tailored. And when people feel like they’re missing out on something, they’re much more likely to take action.

So how can you use dynamic content to create a sense of FOMO in your email marketing? Here are some ideas:

Use personalization to show subscribers what they stand to gain by taking action.

Use images and videos to make your emails more visually appealing and engaging.

Make it easy for people to take action by including clear call-to-actions and links.

There are a few different ways you can create a sense of urgency in your emails:

Set a deadline: Make it clear that customers need to take action by a certain date, or they’ll miss out.

Offer a limited-time discount: Give customers a discount that expires soon to encourage them to make a purchase now.

Release new products and services: Announce that you’re releasing a new product or service and include a countdown clock to create a sense of urgency.

Feature limited-quantity items: Let customers know that an item has a limited supply to get them to act fast.

By using scarcity tactics in your email marketing, you can increase the likelihood that people will take action on your messages. So if you want to encourage customers to act now, consider adding a sense of urgency to your emails.

5. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Create A Reactivation Strategy For Email

Up to 75% of your subscriber list might be inactive if you don’t have a strategy for reactivating email subscribers! Lapsed subscribers are not only a significant waste of your time but may also damage your brand’s reputation. Why? Because you’ll eventually start to see high complaint rates from inactive subscribers who no longer want to receive your emails.

This implies that your email metrics will be skewed, and you won’t have a clear idea of the value of your subscriber list.

An email reactivation strategy is a great way to get your inactive subscribers back on track. It’s also an opportunity to improve your email deliverability and sender reputation.

The first step is to segment your inactive subscribers. This will help you focus your efforts on those more likely to engage with your reactivation emails. There are a few different ways to segment your inactive subscribers, but the most common method is to segment them based on how long they’ve been idle. Once you’ve segmented your inactive subscribers, you can start planning your email reactivation strategy.

The next step is to choose the right email reactivation template. There are a few options, but the most important thing is ensuring that your email is personal and relevant to the recipient.

Once you’ve chosen your email reactivation template, you need to write your email. This is where you’ll need to be creative and come up with a subject line that will grab the attention of your inactive subscribers.

After you’ve written your email, the next step is to send it out. You’ll need to ensure that you’re sending your email at the right time and to the right people.

Finally, you need to track your results. This will help you see how effective your email reactivation strategy has been and make changes if necessary.

6. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: How To Design Your Email For A Mobile-Friendly World

It’s no secret that more and more people are reading their emails on mobile devices. In fact, according to a recent study by Litmus, 55% of all email is now opened on a mobile device.

This trend has huge implications for email marketers. If your email isn’t designed with a mobile reader in mind, there’s a good chance your subscribers will never see it.

Even though you want your emails to have the same impact on all devices, modern information consumption habits indicate that more and more individuals are reading their emails on mobile devices. As a result, it’s become increasingly important for email marketers to design their emails with a mobile reader in mind.

Screens are more cramped, and browsing time is reduced, necessitating the rapid engagement of mobile users and preventing unpleasant user experiences.

The easiest way to do this is by generating mobile-friendly, snackable content that’s simple to read and consume on a mobile device. Although many ESPs have mobile-friendly email templates, focus your UX design on mobile users who are still interested in a computer.

Increased conversion rates,

Increase customer interaction,

Reduced subscriber turnover and moreover,

There are fewer spam emails in the spam folder.

The success of any email design, whether for mobile devices or PCs, is determined by two fundamental components: your email marketing plan and your overall email marketing strategy. The former defines what you want to achieve with your email campaign, and the latter establishes how you will get there.

The precise strategy for what your firm wants from its email marketing should be well-informed and data-driven. Different businesses may have unique design needs based on their style, objectives, and other essential aspects that shape their email design.

Let’s get started! Now that you know why mobile-friendly emails are vital let’s discuss how to create them. So how can you make sure your email is mobile-friendly? Here are a few tips:

1. Consider a short and memorable subject line for your email message.

The subject line is the first thing your email recipient sees, so make a good first impression on them. If it’s lengthy, though, it will be snipped, and your subscribers won’t be able to read it. A compelling subject line with few characters is ideal for mobile screens.

2. Keep the design simple.

The layout should be easy to understand and follow. A good rule of thumb is to use a single-column design and keep the overall email width to 600px or less.

Here are a few tips to help you devise an appealing and functional design that your audience will appreciate:

Use the correct colour palette. Stick to a consistent layout.

Use a single-column format. The different layout designs would result in the components piling on one another, making the email extremely long.

Reduce the number of words in your email messages without sacrificing their impact.

Experiment with different fonts. The email font style should be simple to read.

Don’t go overboard with colours. Choose a single primary hue, and the rest may be accent colours that are used rarely.

Use a single-column layout: When it comes to email design, less is more. A single-column layout is much easier to read on a small screen than a multi-column layout.

Use short, concise copy: Long paragraphs are difficult to read on a small screen. Keep your copy brief and to the point.

3. Optimize your images.

Images can make your email look great, but they can also load slowly, especially on mobile devices. To prevent this from happening, compress your images before adding them to your email. You can use an online tool like TinyPNG to compress your images without reducing their quality.

Keep your images small: Large images can cause your email to load slowly on a mobile device. Make sure your images are no larger than 500 pixels wide.

4. Use big, easy-to-tap buttons

To keep the dimensions minimum, use no more than 44 pixels.

Place the call-to-action in a prominent location and surround it with negative space to stand out.

Add more than one CTA to provide multiple chances to convert.

To discover what techniques other firms use to transform their audience, perform competitor analysis.

5. Leave a little breathing room in your communications

Include enough white space in your email design to give each element room to breathe. This will make your email more pleasant to read.

It’s a good idea to make your emails more appealing with catchy words and attractive visuals, but it’s also important to give them some breathing room and not overcrowd them.

Some space in your emails will make them appear cleaner on phones and allow your recipients to read them without being sidetracked.

White space is also beneficial for separating texts and call-to-action buttons, emphasizing their importance, and directing the reader’s focus on the relevant information. 

However, don’t make the gap between paragraphs so large that the reader misses out on crucial information within the email.

In recent years, the business world has aggressively embraced email marketing to increase sales and engage new consumers. Email marketing aims to develop appealing and mobile-friendly emails that will persuade people to buy your product or service.

7. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Tell A Story About Your Brand

To be successful, you must ensure your email stands out in a crowded inbox. One way to do this is by using growth hacking techniques to tell a story that captivates your audience and encourages them to take action.

One of the best ways to tell a story with your email marketing is to focus on customer testimonials. Customer testimonials are a great way to show off the results of using your product or service. They’re also an excellent way to build trust with your target audience. When potential customers see that others have had success with your product, they’ll be more likely to take the plunge and try it themselves.

To start, you need a list of satisfied customers willing to provide a testimonial. Once you have that, reach out and ask if they’d be willing to give a quote you can use in your email marketing. If they agree, great! If not, don’t worry – there are plenty of other growth hacking techniques you can use to tell your story and capture your audience’s attention.

Another way to tell a story with your email marketing is to focus on the results you’ve been able to achieve for your customers. This could mean showcasing statistics or sharing case studies that demonstrate the success your product or service has helped create. Whatever results you choose to share, make sure they’re relevant to your target audience and will resonate with them.

Next, It’s not always possible to give things out for free or provide discount codes to get customers to the literal finish line. Marketing Sherpa says most people read emails for no longer than 20 seconds. You must capture your readers’ attention quickly.

Creating a narrative similar to that of your favourite novelist may pique readers’ interest. Adding narrative will bring it to life even if your material is a little more dry (which it frequently is).

What kinds of storytelling techniques should you use in your emails? Any and all of them are welcome! Make people’s characteristics larger by exaggerating them.

Organize your events from beginning to end in chronological order. Use personal stories and expand on them. Ensure you include emotions since they help your reader connect with your “characters.”

Let’s assume, for example, that you are writing about your difficulties as an entrepreneur looking to start a small company.

You can use the following storytelling example:

“I was so excited to start my company. I had the best product and team and was passionate about my work. But no matter how hard I tried, I couldn’t get people to invest in my business.”

“I felt like a failure. I didn’t know what to do or where to turn.”

“That’s when I realized that I needed to change my approach. I decided to focus on telling my story in a way that would connect with potential investors on an emotional level.”

“I started by highlighting my journey as an entrepreneur. I talked about the challenges I faced and how I overcame them. I also shared my business’s successes and how they helped me achieve my goals.”

“By telling my story, I connected with potential investors deeper. They saw that I was passionate about my work and had what it takes to succeed.”

“As a result, I was able to secure the funding I needed to grow my business. And today, I’m proud to say that my company is thriving.”

Concentrate on Creating a Narrative Structure

If you can focus on creating a narrative arc in your email marketing messages, you’ll be well on captivating your audience and achieving success.

Storytelling is all about emotions; the best way to tap into those emotions is to use language that evokes them.

When crafting your email marketing messages, pay attention to your words. Are they positive or negative? Do they create a feeling of excitement or anxiety?

The words you use can impact your readers’ feelings, so choose them carefully. If you want to create a sense of urgency, you might use phrases like “act now” or “limited time only.”

On the other hand, if you want to create a feeling of comfort and security, you might use phrases like “risk-free” or “money-back guarantee.”

Remember, the goal is to connect with your readers on an emotional level, so choose your words carefully.

When you’re telling a story in your email marketing messages, it’s important to focus on the details. The more specific you can be, the better.

For example, rather than simply saying, “I was able to grow my business,” you might say, “I was able to grow my business by 30% last year.”

The more specific you can be, the easier it will be for your readers to picture what you’re saying. And they’ll be more likely to feel it when they picture it. So don’t be afraid to get into the details.

8. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: To Add A Surprise Touch, Incorporate Humour

If you’re looking for ways to make your email marketing more effective, one thing you can do is incorporate Humour into your emails. This can add an element of surprise and make your emails more memorable.

Not every little firm has a dramatic coming-of-age narrative, and that’s tolerable. If you don’t have enough trials and difficulties, email writing has a few different techniques.

We’re talking about a sense of Humour. If you want to come across as more approachable, personable, and just plain likeable, adding a bit of Humour to your emails is a great way to do it.

Email marketing is all about building relationships with your customers, and one of the best ways to build a relationship is by making them laugh.

Humour isn’t something you can force, so if you don’t believe your company will ever find it funny, it’s probably not going to happen.

A few amusing stories or relatable anecdotes inserted into your emails will not only get your subscribers reading, but they’ll be laughing as they do so.

But beware, Humour is a tricky thing. Your joke could fall flat or offend someone if you’re not careful. So, before you start adding jokes to your emails, make sure it’s something that will work for your company and audience.

9. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Send Emails Often But Don’t Spam

Email marketing is one of the most effective ways to reach potential customers and promote your product or service. However, to be successful, you must ensure that you’re sending out a high volume of email messages regularly.

One way to increase the number of emails you send is to use a technique known as email marketing growth hacking. This involves sending out emails more frequently than you normally would, but without spamming your list of subscribers.

There are several approaches that you may take. One is to send out more messages weekly. Another is to send out more messages daily.

The key is to find a balance that works for you and your subscribers. You risk annoying or angering your list if you send out too many emails. But if you don’t send enough, you won’t see the results you’re hoping for.

Experiment and see what works best for you. And don’t be afraid to change things up if you do not see the desired results.

Email marketing is a powerful tool, but it’s only effective if you use it correctly. 

By following the tips above, you can ensure that your email marketing campaign is successful.

1. How to keep your emails out of spam and into the inbox

Even the most experienced email marketers have problems with email delivery, which always happens. That’s where we come in! We’re here to assist you in getting back into your inbox and avoiding the spam folder.

We’ll go over some of our most useful recommendations to guarantee that your communications do not get filtered out by spam filters and are delivered to your intended audience. Check for suggestions on the following topics:

2. Make your email list

The first step is to ensure you only email people who have signed up to receive your communications. It might seem like a no-brainer, but many companies make the mistake of adding people to their email list without permission, which can come back to bite you later.

3. Give your email list a double opt-in option

A double opt-in is when someone subscribes to your email list and then receives an email asking them to confirm their subscription. This might seem like an extra step, but it is worth ensuring that people on your list want to be there.

4. Clean your email list regularly

It’s essential to clean up your email list frequently. This means removing people who have unsubscribed, bounced, or marked your emails as spam.

5. Use an email service provider

An email service provider (ESP) is a company that specializes in sending out email communications. They can help you deliver your messages to a larger audience and ensure they’re not filtered out as spam.

6. Use a professional email template

When sending out email communications, it’s important to use a professional-looking template. This will help you make a good impression on your audience and ensure that your messages are not filtered out as spam.

7. Spam checkers are an excellent tool

There are many different spam checkers that you can use to ensure that your email messages are not being filtered out as spam. These tools will help you identify any problems with your messages to make the necessary changes.

8. Make sure your posts are relevant

Make sure that you’re sending relevant and interesting content to your audience. If your messages are full of spammy or irrelevant content, they’re more likely to be filtered out as spam.

9. Test your emails before you send them

Last but not least, you must test your messages before sending out an email campaign. This will help you ensure they’re not being filtered out as spam and reaching your intended audience. These are just a few ways to keep your emails out of spam and into your inbox. 

By following these guidelines, you may assure the effectiveness of your email marketing strategy.

Email marketing is a strong tool for reaching a huge audience with little effort. However, to maximize the effectiveness of your email marketing campaigns, you need to use the right tools. Many email marketing tools are available, each with its features and benefits. 

To choose the right tool for your needs, consider the following:

The size of your email list: If you have a large email list, you’ll need a tool that can handle mass emails.

The type of content you want to send: Some email marketing tools allow you to send HTML emails with images and videos, while others are better suited for sending plain text emails.

Your budget: Email marketing tools vary in price, from free to expensive. Choose a tool that fits your budget and your needs.

Once you’ve considered these factors, you can choose the right email marketing tool for your needs.

One of these major issues is how long it takes to develop a fantastic-looking email from the ground up. Marketers who don’t use excellent equipment may spend a significant amount of time producing and sending emails that aren’t attractive. It slows down operations while lowering your email marketing ROI.

Because they are unwilling to invest in a tool to streamline the process, many businesses accept this situation. Nonetheless, email marketing services don’t always have to be pricey. Many free email marketing solutions are available to assist you in saving time and money.

Some of the most favoured email marketing tools include:


MailChimp is a popular, free email marketing tool that offers many features, including templates, autoresponders, and analytics. Mailchimp is a well-known email marketing tool.

Their free plan provides basic email marketing features such as email creation and scheduling.

This great email marketing tool is its smart recommendations feature, which provides valuable audience insights to optimize your marketing efforts.

HubSpot Email Marketing: 

HubSpot provides a free email marketing solution that can meet the needs of a lot of small business transactional emails. You can use HubSpot to automate your email marketing and track results with ease.

HubSpot Email Marketing’s free version can send kickback emails, thank you emails after purchase, or boost existing campaigns.

The simplicity of HubSpot’s free email software is one of its finest features. The program’s drag-and-drop visual editor makes creating new pages and editing existing ones simple, while ready-made templates get you up and running quickly.


Moosend is a powerful yet easy-to-use email marketing tool that offers a free plan for up to 1,000 contacts.

Moosend is a fantastic email marketing software that automates time-consuming activities while saving you time. You may create behavioural email campaigns based on your subscribers’ details and/or behaviours.

This tool gives you a comprehensive campaign performance report, so you know exactly how to improve your campaigns and get even better results.


Sendinblue is an all-in-one marketing platform that offers free and premium plans. The free plan includes unlimited contacts and up to 300 emails per day.

Sendinblue’s email marketing software is designed for businesses of all sizes.

With Sendinblue, you can easily create stunning emails, thanks to its drag-and-drop builder.


Omnisend is a sophisticated ecommerce marketing platform that combines all your communication platforms into one location.

It’s free, but Small and medium businesses can use it to send out an email regularly. You may use behavioural triggers to set up email delivery and schedule your communications depending on the convenience of your consumers.

Constant Contact:

Constant Contact is another popular email marketing tool that offers many features, including templates, autoresponders, and surveys.


AWeber is a popular email marketing tool that offers many features, including autoresponders, split testing, and analytics.

Note: Most free email marketing services have extensive features even without upgrading to a paid plan. Small businesses and marketers can make their most while saving time and money. Many premium plans are cheap and adaptable enough to fit your budget, even if you need to upgrade to meet your company’s demands.

11. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Give Something Discount Or Free

Email marketing is a fantastic way to reach out to potential customers and grow your business. What if you’re not convinced where to start? Or maybe you’re looking for ways to make your email marketing more effective.

The next great way to grow your email list and increase engagement is to offer something free (or discounted). This could be a free e-book, a discount code for your online store, or anything else that would be of value to your target audience.

Due to the flexibility of discounts on goods and services accessible at any time of year, customers do not have to wait for sales events to receive lower rates.

Companies often provide attractive discount coupons that encourage you to make a purchase.

The greatest approach to distributing coupons to your consumers is through email marketing campaigns, which may be used with promotional marketing to help you convert visitors into sales, market your business and recommend products to friends and family, allowing you to reach even more people.

Another benefit is that giving your consumers these deals will make them feel special and keep them as customers.

Here are some helpful hints for getting the most out of your email marketing and discount offers:

Subject Line 

In the message line, make it clear to recipients what sort of discount you’re providing and include a phrase that encourages openness.

Don’t make it too difficult for your audience to understand. If you’re giving a discount, stick with real savings rather than “free” or other discounts that don’t fit the event you’re hosting because your user may feel duped.

Opening emails from mobile devices. 

Some customers believe that they are opened when they receive numerous emails. If you provide a discount, make it as simple as possible for the recipient to use it.

A coupon that can be used online should include a discount code, such as a number-and-letter combination that the client may use while purchasing.

If the discount can only be used in person, make sure your design is mobile-friendly and that the print option is selected.

Holidays are a good opportunity to send out your email with attractive discounts to entice customers to buy.

Make appealing designs. Personalize your mailing to make it more attractive and innovative. When a user first sees your logo, you must ensure that they can identify your brand, its goods and services, and the discount offer.

1. Keep it short and sweet.

People’s attention spans are shorter than ever, so it’s important to ensure your videos are concise and to the point. Keep them under two minutes if possible, and ensure the content is relevant and interesting.

2. Use a strong headline.

3. Use an eye-catching thumbnail image.

4. Make sure the video is mobile-friendly.

With more and more people viewing email on their phones, making sure your videos are optimized for mobile is important. This means using a format that can be easily viewed on a small screen and ensuring the sound is turned off by default (people are often in public places when viewing the email on their phones and don’t want to disturb those around them).

5. Use an intriguing subject line.

Your subject line should entice people to open your email and watch the video. Make it interesting and curious, and ensure it’s relevant to the content of the video.

6. Use an engaging opening.

The first few seconds of your video are critical in getting people to stick around and watch the whole thing. Grab their attention with an engaging opening, and ensure the first few seconds are visually interesting.

7. Use captions.

Captions are important for two reasons: first, they allow people to watch your video even if they can’t turn up the sound; second, they help break up the text on the screen and make it more readable.

8. Use a call to action.

Your video should have a clear call to action at the end, telling viewers what you want them to do next. Whether visiting your website, signing up for your newsletter, or making a purchase, make sure the call to action is clear and easy to follow.

13. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Proofread Your Mails Before They Are Out. 

Your reputation in the corporate world is critical. Making grammatical and spelling errors can have a negative influence on your reputation. If you’re not careful, people will start to see you as someone careless and unprofessional.

One way to avoid this is to proofread your emails before they are sent out. This may seem like a time-consuming task, but it’s worth it in the long run. Taking the time to proofread will ensure that your emails are error-free and reflect positively on you and your company.

Here are a few tips to help you proofread your emails:

1. Read your email aloud before sending it. This will help you notice any mistakes you may have overlooked when reading it silently.

2. Use spell check. This is a handy tool that can help you catch any spelling errors.

3. Have someone else read your email? Another set of eyes can often catch errors that you have missed.

4. Take your time. Don’t rush through the proofreading process. It’s important to take your time so that you don’t miss any errors.

5. Read your email from the end to the beginning. This will help you catch any errors you may have missed when reading it from the start.

Proofreading your emails is a simple task that can make a big difference in how others perceive you. Implementing this strategy can help improve your reputation and make you look more professional.

Proofreading is an unfortunate rookie mistake, mostly because it’s preventable. If you or someone else on your team take some duration to proofread your emails even before they go out, you can catch most mistakes.

There are several online grammars and spell checkers, and most of them are free.

The email automation software couldn’t possibly anticipate everything. In this case, your best defence against typos and grammatical mistakes is a pair of human eyes.

Here are a few hilarious typos and email mistakes. They’re amusing since they didn’t happen to you, but they serve as a powerful reminder to double-check!

Lets us see some examples, typos, and how to avoid them:

1. “I’m sorry for the delay in my response. I’ve been out of the office with food poisoning.”

This is a classic example of proofreading your email before hitting send. The recipient of this email probably wasn’t thrilled to hear about the sender’s food poisoning.

2. “I hope you’re well. I wanted to reach out and see if you’re available for a call on Tuesday.”

This email contains two typos: “reaches” and “available.” A simple spell check would have caught these errors.

3. “Thanks for your help with the project. I truly appreciate it.”

This email contains a typo (“truly”), but it’s not a major mistake. The recipient of this email will still understand the message.

4. “I’m sorry for the inconvenience, but we’ve had to reschedule your appointment.”

This email contains a typo (“appointment”), but it’s not a major mistake. The recipient of this email will still understand the message.

5. “I wanted to let you know I’ve accepted another position.”

This email is well-written and doesn’t contain any typos. However, it’s important to remember that you should always proofread your emails before you hit send.

These are just a few examples of typos that can occur in emails. To avoid making these mistakes, proofread your emails before you hit send. This simple step can help you avoid embarrassing typos and make you look more professional.

14. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Use Lead Magnets To Raise Your Success

Email marketing is a great way to connect with potential and current customers. If you’re not using email marketing, you’re missing out on a valuable opportunity to reach your audience.

One way to increase the effectiveness of your email marketing is to use lead magnets. Lead magnets are content you offer for free in exchange for an email address. This content can be in the form of an eBook, video, report, or anything else that would be valuable to your target audience.

The key to using lead magnets effectively is ensuring high-quality content is relevant to your target audience. If you offer something that is not useful or interesting to your audience, they will not be motivated to give you their email address.

Once you have a lead magnet, you need to promote it. You can promote your lead magnet through your website, social media, and email list. Make sure to include a call-to-action so your audience knows what to do next.

When promoting your lead magnet, track your results to see what works and is not. This will help you fine-tune your marketing efforts and get the most out of your lead magnet.

15. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Gamify

Gamification is yet another good growth hacking technique to be used in email marketing. Adding game-like elements to your emails can increase engagement and encourage customers to stick around longer.

Some great examples of gamification in email marketing include incorporating:

Points: For every purchase they make, they give customers a certain number of points they can redeem for discounts or freebies down the road.

Leaderboards: Create leaderboards to encourage friendly competition and show customers where they rank compared to other subscribers.

Raffles: Hold raffles where customers can enter to win prizes by taking certain actions, such as referring a friend or making a purchase.

Contests and Quizzes: Host contests where customers can compete for prizes by completing tasks like taking a quiz or sharing your email on social media.

You can also use scratch-off cards or spin-the-wheel games to add an element of fun.

Not only will gamification make your emails more enjoyable to read, but it can also help motivate customers to take action. 

So if you’re looking for a way to add extra excitement to your email marketing campaigns, consider gamifying your messages.

16. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Create Topic Clusters

Email marketing is a powerful tool for driving growth. But, like any tool, it needs to be used correctly to be effective. One way to get the most out of email marketing is to employ growth hacking techniques.

One growth hacking technique that can be particularly effective is building topic clusters. A topic cluster is a group of related content pieces that all centre around the main topic. Topic clusters are effective because they provide comprehensive coverage of a topic, which helps to improve SEO and can also lead to more conversions.

Building a topic cluster can be a bit of work, but it’s worth it. Here’s how to do it:

1. Choose the main topic:

The first step is to choose the main topic for your cluster. This will be the centrepiece of your content strategy, and everything else will revolve around it.

2. Do keyword research: 

Once you’ve chosen the main topic, it’s time to do some keyword research. This will help you identify other related topics that you can write about.

3. Brainstorm a list of related topics: 

Once you’ve done your keyword research, brainstorm a list of related topics. These will be the topics that you’ll write about in your cluster.

4. Create content around each topic: 

Once you have a list of topics, it’s time to start content creation. Write emails based on the researched topics.

5. Make sure each piece of content links to the other pieces in the cluster:

As you create content, make sure to link back and forth between the different pieces. No question generating topic clusters and pillar pages will improve your search rankings and organic traffic.

For a few of these reasons, this approach is efficient.

• First, it allows you to tell a story over an extended length of time:

You may sketch a narrative while planning out the sequence of emails, which will bind them together and entice readers. This is more compelling than just sending one unrelated, random email after the next to your users.

• Second, you may use it to consistently direct people back to your website:

You may drive traffic to your site, which will improve your SEO. So, if you didn’t start working on those proven content marketing strategies, you should start today!

17. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Start Collecting Your Engagement Data

So, what should you be tracking?

In the email marketing industry, key performance indicators, KPIs, include:

Open rate

Unsubscribe rate

Conversion rate

Measuring user engagement is critical to see whether your growth hacking methods are working. There are several solutions accessible that will take care of the problem for you, so there’s no reason not to do it.

It’s critical to share email engagement data with your salespeople, depending on your business model.

18. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Remove Email Denies From Your Block List, And Keep An Eye On Your Reputation

If you’re serious about email marketing, you must pay attention to your sender’s reputation. A large part is maintaining a healthy email list, which means regularly removing email addresses that have bounced or been marked as spam.

But even if you’re doing everything right, there’s always a chance that some of your emails will end up in the recipient’s spam folder. If you see a sudden drop in your open rates, it could be because your messages are being filtered as spam.

You can do a few things to try to fix the problem, but the most important thing is to keep an eye on your sender’s reputation. If it starts to slip, you’ll need to take action quickly to ensure your emails aren’t in the spam folder.

What is email deliverability?

Email deliverability is an email’s ability to reach its intended recipient’s inbox. Various factors can affect email deliverability, including the quality of the sender’s list, the content of the email, and the reputation of the sender’s IP address.

How do I improve my email deliverability?

Here are some key pointers to enhance your email deliverability: 

Remove bounced or invalid email addresses from your list

Keep an eye on your sender’s reputation

Try executing the double opt-in process for new subscribers

Monitor your engagement rates and take action if they start to decline

Avoid using spammy keywords or phrases in your subject line or content

Use a professional email marketing service that can help you with deliverability issues

What is a good email deliverability rate?

A good email deliverability rate is anything above 90%. This means that your emails reach the inbox of your intended recipients more than 90% of the time.

If your delivery rates are being watched, you’ll be notified of any warning signs that you’re on a blacklist.

19. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Be Compliant With Internet Privacy Rules

Email marketing is an important part of any digital marketing strategy and can be a great way to reach out to your customers and promote your products or services. However, it’s important to know the internet privacy rules and regulations that apply to email marketing to avoid potential penalties or legal action.

The first step is to ensure that you have a valid email address for each person on your mailing list. It’s also important to give people the option to opt out of receiving future emails from you and make it easy for them to do so. Finally, you should never send unsolicited emails or spam.

Over the last two decades, internet privacy legislation has exploded worldwide. Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM) in the US, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the EU, and Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations (PECR) in the UK are just a few of the many laws that govern email marketing.

The best way to ensure compliance with relevant laws and regulations is to work with a reputable email marketing service provider. They will have experience in dealing with the various rules and regulations and will be able to help you ensure that your email marketing campaigns are compliant.

Following these simple rules ensures that your email marketing campaigns comply with internet privacy rules and regulations. This will help to protect your business and avoid any potential legal problems.

20. Email Marketing Growth Hacking Technique: Keep Perfecting The Process

This isn’t a super-useful hack you can use right now, but we thought it was an appropriate way to conclude the post.

Always be adjusting and updating your email marketing procedure. You can never get complacent in your engagement and nurturing techniques when many prospects are coming your way.

You can accomplish this by sending a friendly email with a signup form, tracking user information collected throughout the registration process, dividing consumers based on identifiable data, creating personalized emails, and delivering them to people at the right moment.

 You should also develop a social media presence and employ real people to respond to consumer inquiries to make your services easy to discover and utilize.

When developing an email campaign, think about the user experience rather than promoting your company or product. The higher your campaign’s engagement rates, the better your email marketing campaign performs.

By continually improving your email marketing, you’ll be able to scale your business more effectively and efficiently.

Also Read: Top 101 Digital Marketing Growth Hacking Techniques


Growth hacking is all about using creative and sometimes unconventional methods to grow a business quickly and efficiently.

It’s about thinking outside the box and testing different approaches until you find what works best for your business. As a small business owner, we realize you have a lot on your plate, but it’s worth improving your email marketing. You’ll experience greater growth and, as a result, more sales.

What Is Component Testing? Techniques, Example Test Cases

What is Component Testing?

Component testing is defined as a software testing type, in which the testing is performed on each individual component separately without integrating with other components. It’s also referred to as Module Testing when it is viewed from an architecture perspective. Component Testing is also referred to as Unit Testing, Program Testing or Module Testing.

Generally, any software as a whole is made of several components. Component Level Testing deals with testing these components individually.

It’s one of most frequent black box testing types which is performed by QA Team.

The usage of the term “Component Testing” varies from domain to domain and organization to organization.

The most common reason for different perception of Component testing are

Type of Development Life Cycle Model Chosen

Complexity of the software or application under test

Testing with or without isolation from rest of other component in software or application.

As we know Software Test Life Cycle Architecture has lots many test-artifacts (Documents made, used during testing activities). Among many tests – artifacts, it’s the Test Policy & Test Strategy which defines the types of testing, depth of testing to be performed in a given project.

Who does Component Testing

Component testing is performed by testers. ‘Unit Testing’ is performed by the developers where they do the testing of the individual functionality or procedure. After Unit Testing is performed, the next testing is component testing. Component testing is done by the testers.

When to perform Component testing

Component testing is performed soon after the Unit Testing is done by the developers and the build is released for the testing team. This build is referred as UT build (Unit Testing Build). Major functionality of all the components are tested in this phase,

Entry criteria for component testing

Minimum number of the component to be included in the UT should be developed & unit tested.

Exit criteria for component testing

The functionality of all the component should be working fine.

There should not presence of any Critical or High or Medium severity & priority defects Defect log.

Component Testing Techniques

Based on depth of testing levels, Component testing can be categorized as

CTIS – Component Testing In Small

CTIL – Component Testing In Large

CTIS – Component Testing in Small

Component testing may be done with or without isolation of rest of other components in the software or application under test. If it’s performed with the isolation of other component, then it’s referred as Component Testing in Small.

Example 1: Consider a website which has 5 different web pages then testing each webpage separately & with the isolation of other components is referred as Component testing in Small.

Example 2: Consider the home page of the chúng tôi website which has many components like

Home, Testing, SAP, Web, Must Learn!, Big Data, Live Projects, Blog and etc.

Similarly, any software is made of many components and also, every component will have its own subcomponents. Testing each modules mentioned in example 2 separately without considering integration with other components is referred as Component Testing in Small.

How to do Component Testing

Note: The sub-component are mentioned with red highlighted color in the below snapshot.

How to do Component Testing

CTIL – Component Testing in Large

Component testing done without isolation of other components in the software or application under test is referred as Component Testing Large.

Let’s take an example to understand it in a better way. Suppose there is an application consisting of three components say Component A, Component B, and Component C.

The developer has developed the component B and wants it tested. But in order to completely test the component B, few of its functionalities are dependent on component A and few on component C.

But the component A and component C has not been developed yet. In that case, to test the component B completely, we can replace the component A and component C by stub and drivers as required. So basically, component A & C are replaced by stub & driver’s which acts as a dummy object till they are actually developed.

Stub: A stub is called from the software component to be tested as shown in the diagram below ‘Stub’ is called by Component A.

Driver: A driver calls the component to be tested as shown in the diagram below ‘Component B’ is called by Driver.

Example Test Cases for Component Testing

Consider 2 webpages as per the diagrams mentioned below, Here both the web page are interrelated to each other from a functionality point of view.

Web page 2 is home page of chúng tôi

So here login page is one component, and the home page is another. Now testing the functionality of individual pages separately is called component testing.

Component testing scenario’s on web page1 –

Enter invalid user id and verify if any user-friendly warning pop up is shown to the end user.

Component testing scenario’s on web page2 –

Verify if the “Welcome to manager page of guru99 bank” message is being displayed on the home page.

Verify if the manager id is being displayed in the center of the home page.

Verify the presence of the 3 different images on the home page as per the diagram.

Unit Testing Vs Component Testing

Unit Testing Component Testing

Testing individual programs, modules to demonstrate that program executes as per the specification is called Unit Testing

Testing each object or parts of the software separately with or without isolation of other objects is called Component Testing

Its validated against design documents

Its validated against test requirements, use cases

Unit testing is done by Developers

Component testing is done by Testers

Unit testing is done first

Component testing is done after unit testing is complete from the developers end.


In Software Engineering, Component testing plays a crucial role in finding the bugs. Before we start the Integration Testing after the component testing and the integration testing is followed by component testing.

Component testing also referred as module testing in some references.

50 Software Engineering Interview Questions And Answers

1) What are the important categories of software?

System software

Application software

Embedded software

Web Applications

Artificial Intelligence software

Scientific software.

2) What is the main difference between a computer program and computer software?

A computer program is a piece of programming code. It performs a well-defined task. On the other hand, the software includes programming code, documentation and user guide.

3) What is software re-engineering?

It is a process of software development which is done to improve the maintainability of a software system.

4) Describe the software development process in brief:

The software development is a life cycle is composed of the following stages:

Requirement analysis


Software architecture




Training and support


5) What are SDLC models available?

Waterfall Model, Spiral Model, Big-bag model, Iterative Model, and V- Model are some of the famous SDLC models.

6) What is verification and validation?


Verification is a term that refers to the set of activities which ensure that software implements a specific function.


7) In software development process what is the meaning of debugging?

Debugging is the process that results in the removal of error. It is very important part of the successful testing.

8) How can you make sure that your code is both safe and fast?

In the software, development security is always first. So if the execution of the program is slow then, I will try to identify the reason out ways to its time complexity.

9) Name two tools which are used for keeping track of software requirements?

There many l ways to keep track of requirements.

Two commonly used are:

Make a requirements specifications document to list all of the requirements.

Create an excel sheet the list down the requirement, type, dependency, priority, etc.

10) What is the main difference between a stubs, a mock?

A stub is a minimal implementation of an interface which generally returns hardcoded data while mock usually verifies outputs against expectations. Those expectations are set in the test.

11) What language do you like to write programming algorithms?

12) What is computer software?

Computer software is a package which includes a software program, its documentation, and user guide on how to use the software.

13) According to you which SDLC model is the best?

There, is no such ranking, as SDLC Models are adopted as per the need for the development process. It may differ software-to-software.

14) Who is software project manager? What is his role?

A software project manager is a person responsible for managing the software development project.

The project manager is doing the project planning, monitoring the progress, communication. He or she also manages risks and resources to deliver the project within time, cost, and quality constraints.

15) What is mean by software scope?

Software scope is a well-defined boundary. It includes all kind of activities that are done to develop and deliver the software product.

The software scope defines all functionalities and artifacts to be delivered as a part of the software. The scope also identifies what the product will do? What is not the part of the project? What is project estimation?

This process is helpful to estimate various aspects of the software product. This estimation can be decided either consulting experts or by using pre-defined formulas.

16) How to find the size of a software product?

The size of software product can be calculated using by following two methods

Counting the lines of delivered code

Counting delivered function points

17) What are function points?

Function points are the features which are provided by the software product. It is considered as a most important measurement for software size.

18) What are software project estimation techniques available?

Most widely used estimation techniques are:

Decomposition technique

Empirical technique

19) What is Software configuration management?

Software configuration management is a process of tracking and controlling changes that happen in the software.

Change control is a function which ensures that all changes made into the software system are consistent and created using organizational rules and regulations.

20) How can you measure project execution?

We can measure project execution using Activity Monitoring, Status Reports, and Milestone Checklists.

21) Tell me about some project management tools.

There are many types of management tools used as per the need for a software project. Some of them are Pert Chart, Gantt Chart, Resource Histogram, Status Reports, etc.

22) What are software requirements?

Software requirements are a functional description of a proposed software system. It is assumed to be the description of the target system, its functionalities, and features.

23) What is feasibility study?

It is a measure to find out how practical and beneficial the software project development will prove to the organization. The software analyzer conducts a study to know the economic, technical and operational feasibility of the project.

Economic: It includes the cost of training, cost of additional and tools and overall estimation of costs and benefits of the project.

Technical: It evaluate technical aspect. Is it possible to develop this system? Assessing the suitability of machine(s) and OS on which software will execute, knowledge of the software development and tools available for this project.

Operational: Here the analyst need to assess that the organization will able to adjust smoothly to the changes done as per the demand for the project. Is the problem worth solving at the estimated cost?

After, studying all this the final feasibility report is created.

24) What are functional and non-functional requirements?

Functional requirements are functional features which are expected by users from the proposed software product.

25) What is software metric?

Software Metrics offers measures for various aspects of software process which are divided into:

Requirement metrics: Length requirements, completeness

Product metrics: Number of coding Lines, Object-oriented metrics, design and test metrics.

26) What is modularization?

Modularization is a technique which is used for dividing a software system into various discreet modules. That is expected to carry out the tasks independently.

27) What is cohesion?

Cohesion is a measure that defines the intra-dependability among the elements of the module.

28) Mentions some software analysis & design tools?

Some of the most important software analysis and designing tools are:

Data Flow Diagrams

Structured Charts

Structured English

Data Dictionary

Hierarchical Input Process Output diagrams

Entity Relationship Diagrams and Decision tables

29) What is mean by level-0 Data flow diagram?

Highest abstraction level is called Level 0 of DFD. It is also called context level DFD. It portrays the entire information system as one diagram.

30) What is the major difference between structured English and Pseudo Code?

Structured English is native English language. It is used to write the structure of a program module. It uses programming language keywords. On the other hand, Pseudo Code is more like to the programming language without syntax of any specific language.

31) What is structured design?

Structured design is a conceptualization of problem. It also called solution design and which is based on ‘divide and conquer’ strategy.

32) What is functional programming?

33) What is Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control?

Quality Assurance checks if proper process is followed while developing the software while Quality Control deals with maintaining the quality of software product.

34) What are CASE tools?

CASE means Computer Aided Software Engineering. They are set of automated software application programs, which are used to support, enhance and strengthen the SDLC activities.

35) Which process model removes defects before software get into trouble?

Clean room software engineering method removes defects before software gets into trouble.

36) Solve this problem

There are twenty different socks of two types in a drawer in one dark room. What is the minimum number of socks you need to take to ensure you have a matching pair?”

If you pick up three socks, they may be of the same type even if the odds are 50%. Odds never an equal reality. Therefore, the only way to ‘ensure you have a matching pair’ is to pick up at least 11 number of shocks.

37) How you can make sure that your written code which can handle various kinds of error situation?

I can write tests that define the expected error situations.

38) Explain the differences between a Thread and a Process? 39) Tell me the difference between an EXE and a DLL?

An exe is an executable program while a DLL is a file that can be loaded and executed by programs dynamically. It is an external code repository for programs. As both are different programs, reuse the same DLL instead of having that code in their file. It also reduces required storage space.

40) What is strong-typing and weak-typing? Which is preferred? Why?

Strong typing checks the types of variables at compile time. On the other hand, weak typing checks the types of the system at run-time. Among them, Strong typing is always preferred because it minimizes the bugs.

41) Describe the difference between Interface-oriented, Object-oriented and Aspect-oriented programming.

Interface programming is contract based.

Object-oriented is a way to write granular objects which have a single purpose.

Aspect Oriented Programming is to segregate the code in such a manner that various objects carry the main tasks, and the subsidiary tasks are carried by independent objects.

42) Why using catch (exception) is always a bad idea?

It is a bad idea because:

As there is no variable defined, it is not possible to read the exception

It’s good to use an exception when you have known exception types.

43) What type of data is passed via HTTP Headers?

Script and metadata passed via HTTP headers.

44) How do you prioritize requirements?

First, you need to design a system by evaluating data structure. Then you should move on to the code structure needed to support it.

45) Give me differences between object-oriented and component-based design?

Object-oriented design can easily be encapsulated to some degree in component-based design.

46) When do you use polymorphism?

Polymorphism is used when there is a need for override functionality when inheriting class. It’s about shared classes and shared contracts.

47) What is the difference between stack and queue?

Queue is always First In, First Out

Stack is always Last In, First Out

48) What is essential for testing the quality of the code?

According to me, the unit testing framework is essential for testing the quality of the code.

49) Do you think that the maintenance of software is expensive?

According to me, maintenances of software will never be expensive if we are using proper development process.

50) Give me differences between tags and branches?

Tags are for versioning releases which are temporary holding places for doing such thing. However, branches are deleted when those changes are merged into the trunk.

51) Where is a protected class-level variable available?

Protected class-level variables are available to any sub-class derived from the base class.

52) Is it possible to execute multiple catch blocks for a single try statement?

Yes. Multiple catch blocks can be executed for a single try statement.

53) When do you need to declare a class as abstract?

We should declare a class as abstract in the following situations:

When the class is inherited from an abstract class, but not all the abstract methods have been overridden.

In the case when minimum one of the methods in the class is declared as an abstract.

54) Develop an algorithm that output your current location and a list of ATMs locations in that area. Get you the closest K ATMs to your location.

Create a method getDistance(a, b) that calculates the distance between a and b.


import java.util.HashMap; import java.util.Map; import java.util.PriorityQueue; public class PrioRQueueExample { public static void main(String[] args){ PrioRQueueExample pqe = new PrioRQueueExample(); int num_ATMs = 3; double curr_loc = 0.00; nallATMLocs.put("atm1",45.0); nallATMLocs.put("atm2",78.0); nallATMLocs.put("atm3",54.0); nallATMLocs.put("atm4",64.0); nallATMLocs.put("atm5",35.0); nallATMLocs.put("atm6",42.0); nallATMLocs.put("atm7",57.0); nallATMLocs.put("atm7",1.00); pq.add(pqe.getLocation(curr_loc,dist));} else{ pq.poll(); pq.add(pqe.getLocation(curr_loc,dist)); } } }); } private double getLocation(double curr,double atm){ return atm - curr; } }

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

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