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What is Bug?

A bug is the consequence/outcome of a coding fault.

Defect in Software Testing

A Defect in Software Testing is a variation or deviation of the software application from end user’s requirements or original business requirements. A software defect is an error in coding which causes incorrect or unexpected results from a software program which does not meet actual requirements. Testers might come across such defects while executing the test cases.

These two terms have very thin line of difference, In the Industry both are faults that need to be fixed and so interchangeably used by some of the Testing teams.

When testers execute the test cases, they might come across such test results which are contradictory to expected results. This variation in test results is referred to as a Software Defect. These defects or variations are referred by different names in different organizations like issues, problems, bugs or incidents.

Bug Report in Software Testing

A Bug Report in Software Testing is a detailed document about bugs found in the software application. Bug report contains each detail about bugs like description, date when bug was found, name of tester who found it, name of developer who fixed it, etc. Bug report helps to identify similar bugs in future so it can be avoided.

While reporting the bug to developer, your Bug Report should contain the following information

Defect_ID – Unique identification number for the defect.

Defect Description – Detailed description of the Defect including information about the module in which Defect was found.

Version – Version of the application in which defect was found.

Steps – Detailed steps along with screenshots with which the developer can reproduce the defects.

Date Raised – Date when the defect is raised

Reference– where in you Provide reference to the documents like . requirements, design, architecture or maybe even screenshots of the error to help understand the defect

Detected By – Name/ID of the tester who raised the defect

Status – Status of the defect , more on this later

Fixed by – Name/ID of the developer who fixed it

Date Closed – Date when the defect is closed

Severity which describes the impact of the defect on the application

Priority which is related to defect fixing urgency. Severity Priority could be High/Medium/Low based on the impact urgency at which the defect should be fixed respectively

Resources

Download a sample Defect Reporting Template

Consider the following as a Test Manager

Your team found bugs while testing the Guru99 Banking project.

After a week the developer responds –

In next week the tester responds

As in the above case, if the defect communication is done verbally, soon things become very complicated. To control and effectively manage bugs you need a defect lifecycle.

What is Defect Management Process?

Defect Management is a systematic process to identify and fix bugs. A defect management cycle contains the following stages 1) Discovery of Defect, 2) Defect Categorization 3) Fixing of Defect by developers 4) Verification by Testers, 5) Defect Closure 6) Defect Reports at the end of project

This topic will guide you on how to apply the defect management process to the project Guru99 Bank website. You can follow the below steps to manage defects.

Discovery

In the discovery phase, the project teams have to discover as many defects as possible, before the end customer can discover it. A defect is said to be discovered and change to status accepted when it is acknowledged and accepted by the developers

In the above scenario, the testers discovered 84 defects in the website Guru99.

Let’s have a look at the following scenario; your testing team discovered some issues in the Guru99 Bank website. They consider them as defects and reported to the development team, but there is a conflict –

In such case, as a Test Manager, what will you do?

C) Agree with the development team that is not a defect

Correct

InCorrect

In such case, a resolution process should be applied to solve the conflict, you take the role as a judge to decide whether the website problem is a defect or not.

Categorization

Defect categorization help the software developers to prioritize their tasks. That means that this kind of priority helps the developers in fixing those defects first that are highly crucial.

Defects are usually categorized by the Test Manager –

Let’s do a small exercise as following

Drag & Drop the Defect Priority Below

1) The website performance is too slow

2) The login function of the website does not work properly

3) The GUI of the website does not display correctly on Mobile devices

4) The website could not remember the user login session

5) Some links doesn’t work

Here are the recommended answers

No. Description Priority Explanation

1

The website performance is too slow

High

The performance bug can cause huge inconvenience to user.

2

The login function of the website does not work properly

Critical

Login is one of the main function of the banking website if this feature does not work, it is serious bugs

3

The GUI of the website does not display correctly on mobile devices

Medium

The defect affects the user who use Smartphone to view the website.

4

The website could not remember the user login session

High

This is a serious issue since the user will be able to login but not be able to perform any further transactions

5

Some links doesn’t work

Low

This is an easy fix for development guys and the user can still access the site without these links

Defect Resolution

Defect Resolution in software testing is a step by step process of fixing the defects. Defect resolution process starts with assigning defects to developers, then developers schedule the defect to be fixed as per priority, then defects are fixed and finally developers send a report of resolution to the test manager. This process helps to fix and track defects easily.

You can follow the following steps to fix the defect.

Assignment: Assigned to a developer or other technician to fix, and changed the status to Responding.

Schedule fixing: The developer side take charge in this phase. They will create a schedule to fix these defects, depend on the defect priority.

Fix the defect: While the development team is fixing the defects, the Test Manager tracks the process of fixing defect compare to the above schedule.

Report the resolution: Get a report of the resolution from developers when defects are fixed.

Verification

After the development team fixed and reported the defect, the testing team verifies that the defects are actually resolved.

For example, in the above scenario, when the development team reported that they already fixed 61 defects, your team would test again to verify these defects were actually fixed or not.

Closure

Once a defect has been resolved and verified, the defect is changed status as closed. If not, you have send a notice to the development to check the defect again.

Defect Reporting

Defect Reporting in software testing is a process in which test managers prepare and send the defect report to the management team for feedback on defect management process and defects’ status. Then the management team checks the defect report and sends feedback or provides further support if needed. Defect reporting helps to better communicate, track and explain defects in detail.

The management board has right to know the defect status. They must understand the defect management process to support you in this project. Therefore, you must report them the current defect situation to get feedback from them.

Important Defect Metrics

Back the above scenario. The developer and test teams have reviews the defects reported. Here is the result of that discussion

How to measure and evaluate the quality of the test execution?

This is a question which every Test Manager wants to know. There are 2 parameters which you can consider as following

In the above scenario, you can calculate the defection rejection ratio (DRR) is 20/84 = 0.238 (23.8 %).

Another example, supposed the Guru99 Bank website has total 64 defects, but your testing team only detect 44 defects i.e. they missed 20 defects. Therefore, you can calculate the defect leakage ratio (DLR) is 20/64 = 0.312 (31.2 %).

Conclusion, the quality of test execution is evaluated via following two parameters

The smaller value of DRR and DLR is, the better quality of test execution is. What is the ratio range which is acceptable? This range could be defined and accepted base in the project target or you may refer the metrics of similar projects.

In this project, the recommended value of acceptable ratio is 5 ~ 10%. It means the quality of test execution is low. You should find countermeasure to reduce these ratios such as

Improve the testing skills of member.

Spend more time for testing execution, especially for reviewing the test execution results.

You're reading Defect Management Process In Software Testing (Bug Report)

Accessibility Testing In Software Engineering

part of it.

People with impairments utilize assistive technology to help them operate software. Here are some examples of such software −

Speech Recognition Software – It converts spoken words to text, which is then used as input by the computer.

Screen reader software – This program is used to read aloud the text that is shown on the screen.

Screen Magnification Software – This software is used to expand the monitor and make reading easier for visually challenged people.

Special Keyboard – Users with motor control issues will benefit from a special keyboard designed for simple typing.

You will learn the following in this tutorial −

What is accessibility testing?

Why is accessibility testing necessary?

Which disabilities to support?

How do you perform accessibility testing?

Tools for Testing Accessibility

Accessibility Testing Myths

Why is accessibility testing necessary?

Reason 1 − Cater to the Disabled Market.

Disability affects around 20% of the population.

One out of every ten persons has a severe handicap.

One in every two persons over the age of 65 has diminished skills.

Blindness, deafness, handicapping, and other bodily diseases are examples of disabilities.

If a software product is made accessible to the disabled, it may appeal to this large market. Accessibility problems in software can be overcome if Accessibility Testing is integrated into the standard software testing life cycle.

Reason 2 − Comply with Accessibility Laws

Government authorities all across the globe have issued legalizations requiring challenged persons to be able to use IT goods.

The following are legal acts enacted by various governments –

United States − Americans with Disabilities Act – 1990

United Kingdom − Disability Discrimination Act – 1995

Australia − Disability Discrimination Act – 1992

Ireland − Disability Act of 2005

Legal compliance necessitates accessibility testing.

Reason 3 − Avoid Potential Legal Action

In the past, Fortune 500 businesses have been prosecuted because their goods were not accessible to people with disabilities. Here are a few notable examples.

National Federation for the Blind (NFB) vs Amazon (2007)

Sexton and NFB vs. Target (2007)

NFB Vs AOL settlement (1999)

It is preferable to design goods that assist the disabled in order to prevent potential litigation.

Which disabilities to support?

The application must assist persons with impairments such as –

Type of DisabilityDescriptionVision Disability

Blindness, color blindness, or vision problems

Visual issues such as visual strobe and flashing effect issues

Physical Disability

Unable to operate the mouse or keyboard with one hand.

Hand motions and muscular sluggishness, which are examples of poor motor abilities.

Cognitive disability

Learning Difficulties, Poor Memory, or inability to comprehend increasingly complicated circumstances

Literacy Disability

Problems in reading

Hearing Disability

Auditory issues such as deafness and hearing loss

Inability to hear or inability to hear clearly

How do you perform accessibility testing?

There are two techniques to do accessibility testing −

Manual

Automated

The following points must be validated before the program may be utilized by all users. This list is used to complete accessibility testing.

Is there a keyboard replacement for all mouse actions and windows in an application?

Whether instructions are included in user documentation or a manual? Is it simple to learn and use the program using the documentation?

Is it possible to organize tabs rationally to guarantee seamless navigation?

Is it possible to have shortcut keys for menus?

Is the program compatible with all operating systems?

Is the response time of each screen or page clearly stated so that End Users know how long they will have to wait?

Is it possible that all labels in the application are appropriately written?

Is the application’s color adjustable for all users?

Whether pictures or symbols are utilized correctly so that end users may readily understand them?

Is it possible for an application to include audio alerts?

Is it possible for a user to change the audio or visual controls?

Is it possible for a user to alter the default fonts for printing and text displays?

Is it possible for the user to change or deactivate flashing, rotating, or moving displays?

Is it possible to see highlighting with reversed colors? Color testing in the application by varying the contrast ratio

Is it possible for persons with disabilities to hear audio and visual content? All multimedia pages on websites with no speakers should be tested.

Is training given for users with impairments so that they can become acquainted with the program or application?

Because testers are inexperienced with impairments, accessibility testing may be difficult. It is preferable to deal with handicapped persons who have special requirements in order to comprehend their difficulties.

Depending on the impairment, there are many methods for testing accessibility. We’ll understand them all one by one.

1. Vision Disability

Let’s pretend I don’t have the capacity to see. I am entirely blind, and I needed to get to “ABC” Website. In such situation, what do you think are your options? There is a one-word option called “Screen reader”. What exactly is this Screen Reader? It is a piece of software that is used to narrate online material. Essentially, what is on your website?, whether it is text, a link, a radio button, images, a video, or something else. Everything will be narrated for me by a screen reader. There are a plethora of Screen Readers present like “Jaws”.

Basically, if you launch Jaws or another screen reader and then navigate to a webpage, it will narrate the entire text to you. For example, if I launch Jaws and then the browser, Jaws will announce: “Mozilla Firefox start page”; if I go to the address bar, Jaws will announce: “ADDRESS BAR”; and then put chúng tôi into the address bar, Jaws will read aloud everything text by text.

Now if a website is badly planned and built, it is conceivable (and often does) that jaws will be unable to narrate proper material, resulting in inaccessibility for Blind People. (For example, if Jaws is narrating a link as content, a blind person would never realize it’s a link, and if it’s a critical one for that website, n that situation, website business would suffer a significant loss.

Visual Impairment

Under the heading of vision impairment, I’d like to highlight two groups. Color Blindness is the first. Color blindness is defined as not being fully blind but being unable to see a certain color adequately. Red and blue are the most frequent hues that persons with color blindness cannot see well. So, if I have red color blindness and want to utilize a website that is 80 percent red, what should I do? Would I feel at ease on that website? No.

As a result, a website should be constructed in such a way that a person with color blindness may easily view it. Consider a basic example of a red button. If it is highlighted in black, it will be more visible. Then it is simple to access. Normally, black and white are thought to be universal.

Poor Vision Disability

The second point is that a person with bad vision or with other eyesight problems (there are numerous eye problems connected to the retina, etc.) cannot visit any site.

1) In such circumstances, it is preferable to avoid using tiny font because it would be extremely beneficial to those with poor eyesight.

2) In addition, persons with vision problems would like to be able to zoom in on the text on the website to make it more pleasant for them. As a result, a website should be built in such a way that when expanding it, the layout does not break when magnifying the text. Otherwise, they will be left with a negative impression.

Other Disability

Browsing the Website without the use of a Mouse is a critical consideration in Accessibility Testing for Disabled Audiences. A user should be able to fully access the website by using the keyboard to access the links, buttons, radio buttons, checkboxes, pop-ups, dropdowns, and all other controls.

For example, if I am right-handed paraplegic and am not familiar with or refuse using a mouse, what should I do? In that situation, if I am unable to access links or checkboxes on the site using the keyboard, what should I do? As a result, a website should be fully accessible through Keyboard.

User with Hearing Impairment

A deaf person can visit the website since he can see the material on it. However, when it comes to audio and video, they run into problems. As a result, there should be Alt text for any video and audio. Alt text is an abbreviation for alternative text. Assume there is a video showing how to book an airplane ticket. In that scenario, the text should be included so that a deaf person may read it and understand what the film is about.

Tools for Testing Accessibility

It is critical that your webpage be easily accessible in order to make it more accepted and user-friendly. There are numerous accessibility testing tools available to assess the website’s accessibility.

Some of the most common Accessibility Testing Tools are as follows −

Wave

WEBAIM’s Wave is a free web accessibility tool. It is used to manually verify the web page for several areas of accessibility. This tool is useful for checking intranet, password-protected, dynamically created, or sensitive web sites. Web Accessibility Toolbar’s main tasks include recognizing webpage components, giving access to alternate views of page content, and simplifying the usage of third-party online apps. It guarantees that all accessibility reporting is completely confidential and safe.

TAW

TAW is an online tool for assessing your website’s accessibility. This tool examines the website in compliance with W3C web accessibility rules and displays concerns with accessibility. Priority 1 problems are prioritized, followed by priority 2 problems, and finally, priority 3 concerns are prioritized. TAW’s ability to produce subsets of WCAG 1.0 to test against is an intriguing capability. You may use the TAW tool to evaluate a single page or several pages by “spidering” a website. TAW also lets us create extra tests using the “User Checking” dialogue box.

Accessibility Valet

It is a program that enables you to assess the adherence of web pages with the WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines). All HTML reporting options display your markup in a normalized format, indicating deprecated, bogus, and legal markup as well as misplaced components. This utility has a number of features, including

Developers will benefit from detailed reports.

Executive summary for Quality Assurance and Management

Metadata for the semantic web and the World Wide Web

Html to XHtml conversion and automatic cleaning

Accessibility Developer Tools

It’s a Google Chrome extension. It also does an accessibility audit. The audit findings reveal that the Page under Test violates accessibility standards. The quick examination of the web page because there are several great accessibility toolbars. It will identify different difficulties with your page, warn you about potential concerns, and indicate sections of the page that may benefit from ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications).

aDesigner

This is an IBM program that mimics the condition of visually impaired persons in order for designers to better understand the requirements of readers such as Jaws. It instructs viewers on how to read the web page.

Web accessibility toolbar

WAT is an Internet Explorer or Opera plugin that provides web page designers with important tools for web page inspection. One of the greatest features is the Grayscale function, which assists in locating low contrast areas in the design.

Conclusion

Accessibility testing in software engineering aids in making your program accessible to people with disabilities. If adhering to accessibility rules is impossible owing to the difficulty of your web application, create two versions of the website − one for ordinary users and one for disabled users.

Best Disk Management Software For Windows 10 In 2023

Best Disk Management Software for Windows 10 in 2023

Hence, there are multiple Disk Management Software available in the market. But not all of them are worth your buck. Here is a list of 6 Best Disk Management Software for Windows 10 in 2023.

6 Best Disk Management Software for Windows 10 1. Disk Analyzer Pro:

Instead, it contains many features that would provide additional value for your bucks. Disk Analyzer Pro analyzes the space on different drives and comes up with detailed reports on what different files are acquiring how much space and how you can free up disk space.

Price- Free; Starting from $39 for Paid Version

2. EaseUS Partition Manager

Second Disk Management Software on our list is EaseUS Partition Manager. EaseUS Partition Manager is one of the most feature rich Disk Management Software available in 2023. This EaseUS Partition Manager helps deal with the tasks of Windows Disk Manager like deleting and creating Partitions, Extending and shrinking Partitions, etc.

EaseUS Partition Manager is a desirable software because it removes the need for workarounds that you have to take into account with Windows Disk Manager. While the Free version of EaseUS Partition Manager provides 80% of the tools, if you still require more features, you can always upgrade to the premium version. With many amazing features and Intuitive interface, EaseUS Partition Manager deserves to be on the list of Best Disk Management Software for Windows 10.

Price – Free; $39.95 for Pro Version.

Download EaseUS Partition Manager.

3. Paragon Partition Manager

Next in the list, Paragon Partition Manager is an old timer and has been around for a long time. Paragon Partition Manager offers all the features one would require from a partition manager. However, unlike Disk Analyzer Pro, it doesn’t offer features like scanning disk space and freeing up disk space for you. But if you require a good tool to get you through the difficulties of using the built-in Windows disk manager tool, you are going to love the easy to use interface of Paragon Partition Manager. Also, it does have a free version available but it lacks most of the useful feature which are reserved for the paid version.

Price- Free; $49.95

Download Paragon Partition Manager

4. Macrorit Disk Partition Expert – Partition Manager Windows

This Macrorit Disk Partition tool is an all-in-one tool to do both primary Disk Management Tasks like extending and shrinking drive space, Deleting and creating partitions, etc. and Additional tasks like helping analyze and free up disk space. Macrorit Disk Partition Expert features an easy-to-use and visually pleasing interface. If you are looking for a tool that works as both partition manager and Disk space manager, Macrorit is the tool for you. There are both free and paid versions available for the software. If you are looking for software that can do both clean disk space and do usual disk manager stuff, Macrorit Disk Partition Expert is the one for you.

Price- Free; $39.99 for premium version.

Download Macrorit Disk Partition Expert

5. Acronis Partition Manager

This Acronis Partition Manager is another Disk manager software that does more than just managing the partition. Acronis Partition Manager, in addition to resizing, creating & deleting partitions, helps in splitting, hiding & unhiding partitions, recovering disk partitions from threats, etc. Acronis Partition Manager is a great tool to have on your PC to manage partitions like a boss.

Price- 30-Day Free Trial; Multiple Plans

Download Acronis Disk Director

6. AOMEI Partition Assistant

This AOMEI Partition Assistant SE is an awesome tool that offers a lot of important features and is one of the most deserving candidates on the list of Best Disk Management Software. AOMEI Partition Assistant, in addition to doing all the basic disk manager stuff, helps in transferring Windows Operating System to another drive without having to reinstall it. AOMEI Partition Assistant is a great tool and also helps in hiding and unhiding disk partitions. If you are looking for an all-rounder, go with AOMEI Partition Assistant, it definitely is one of the best Disk Management Software in the market.

Price- Free; $47.95 for Premium Version.

Download AOMEI Partition Assistant SE

So, these are all the amazing and the best disk Management Software for Windows in 2023. Do let us know if you tried any of these, we love hearing from you.

Recommended Readings:

How to Free Disk Space on Windows 10 PC

Understanding The Importance of Windows Task Manager

Quick Reaction:

About the author

Sagar Kapoor

7 Principles Of Software Testing With Examples

7 Principles of Software Testing

Testing shows presence of defects

Exhaustive testing is not possible

Early testing

Defect clustering

Pesticide paradox

Testing is context dependent

Absence of errors fallacy

This tutorial introduces the seven basic Software Testing Principles that every Software tester and QA professional should know.

Let’s learn the testing principles with the following video example–

Background

It is important that you achieve optimum test results while conducting software testing without deviating from the goal. But how you determine that you are following the right strategy for testing? For that, you need to stick to some basic testing principles. Here are the common seven testing principles that are widely practiced in the software industry.

To understand this, consider a scenario where you are moving a file from folder A to Folder B.

Think of all the possible ways you can test this.

Apart from the usual scenarios, you can also test the following conditions

Trying to move the file when it is Open

You do not have the security rights to paste the file in Folder B

Folder B is on a shared drive and storage capacity is full.

Folder B already has a file with the same name, in fact, the list is endless

Or suppose you have 15 input fields to test, each having 5 possible values, the number of combinations to be tested would be 5^15

Here are the 7 Principles: 1) Exhaustive testing is not possible

Yes! Exhaustive testing is not possible. Instead, we need the optimal amount of testing based on the risk assessment of the application.

And the million dollar question is, how do you determine this risk?

To answer this let’s do an exercise

In your opinion, Which operation is most likely to cause your Operating system to fail?

I am sure most of you would have guessed, Opening 10 different application all at the same time.

So if you were testing this Operating system, you would realize that defects are likely to be found in multi-tasking activity and need to be tested thoroughly which brings us to our next principle Defect Clustering

2) Defect Clustering

Defect Clustering which states that a small number of modules contain most of the defects detected. This is the application of the Pareto Principle to software testing: approximately 80% of the problems are found in 20% of the modules.

By experience, you can identify such risky modules. But this approach has its own problems

If the same tests are repeated over and over again, eventually the same test cases will no longer find new bugs.

3) Pesticide Paradox

Repetitive use of the same pesticide mix to eradicate insects during farming will over time lead to the insects developing resistance to the pesticide Thereby ineffective of pesticides on insects. The same applies to software testing. If the same set of repetitive tests are conducted, the method will be useless for discovering new defects.

To overcome this, the test cases need to be regularly reviewed & revised, adding new & different test cases to help find more defects.

Testers cannot simply depend on existing test techniques. He must look out continually to improve the existing methods to make testing more effective. But even after all this sweat & hard work in testing, you can never claim your product is bug-free. To drive home this point, let’s see this video of the public launch of Windows 98

4) Testing shows a presence of defects

Hence, testing principle states that – Testing talks about the presence of defects and don’t talk about the absence of defects. i.e. Software Testing reduces the probability of undiscovered defects remaining in the software but even if no defects are found, it is not a proof of correctness.

But what if, you work extra hard, taking all precautions & make your software product 99% bug-free. And the software does not meet the needs & requirements of the clients.

5) Absence of Error – fallacy

It is possible that software which is 99% bug-free is still unusable. This can be the case if the system is tested thoroughly for the wrong requirement. Software testing is not mere finding defects, but also to check that software addresses the business needs. The absence of Error is a Fallacy i.e. Finding and fixing defects does not help if the system build is unusable and does not fulfill the user’s needs & requirements.

To solve this problem, the next principle of testing states that Early Testing

6) Early Testing

7) Testing is context dependent

Testing is context dependent which basically means that the way you test an e-commerce site will be different from the way you test a commercial off the shelf application. All the developed software’s are not identical. You might use a different approach, methodologies, techniques, and types of testing depending upon the application type. For instance testing, any POS system at a retail store will be different than testing an ATM machine.

Myth: “Principles are just for reference. I will not use them in practice .”

This is so very untrue. Test Principles will help you create an effective Test Strategy and draft error catching test cases.

But learning testing principles is just like learning to drive for the first time.

Initially, while you learn to drive, you pay attention to each and everything like gear shifts, speed, clutch handling, etc. But with experience, you just focus on driving the rest comes naturally. Such that you even hold conversations with other passengers in the car.

Same is true for testing principles. Experienced testers have internalized these principles to a level that they apply them even without thinking. Hence the myth that the principles are not used in practice is simply not true.

Poor Studio Display Webcam Quality Is A Software Bug That’ll Get Fixed Soon

Early reviews have singled out unexpected quality problems with the Studio Display webcam, but Apple says a software fix is coming soon.

Apple’s new Studio Display will start shipping in less than 24 hours. Early reviews are in agreement that the Studio Display is a more or less fine monitor despite not having such features as ProMotion and HDR (especially given the $1,599 price).

Most reviewers have panned the poor webcam quality of the Studio Display, which is strange considering that features like the built-in camera for video calls or a powerful speaker system are supposed to win over would-be shoppers.

Apple has issued a statement clarifying that the webcam quality issue is a software problem that’ll get fixed with a future firmware update rather than an engineering error that might even require a product recall.

A fix is coming for poor Studio Display webcam issues

The “ultimate video conferencing display,” as Apple is calling its $1,599 5K Retina monitor, is not so impressive when you consider quality issues with the built-in webcam. Early reviews from The Wall Street Journal, The Verge and other publications have criticized the camera for its surprisingly poor image quality.

After sending sample images in various lighting conditions to Apple, The Verge was told by a company spokesperson that the team had “looked into the images you shared and discovered an issue where the system is not behaving as expected,” adding that Apple will be making unspecified improvements “in a software update.”

Apple gave the same statement to The Wall Street Journal, Gizmodo and others.

What are reviewers saying?

Despite having the 12-megapixel sensor and being paired to Apple’s A13 Bionic chip, the integrated web camera “consistently produced grainy and washed-out images,” Joanna Stern noted in her review for The Wall Street Journal.

For confirmation, I again brought in extra eyes. I recorded footage from webcams on the Studio Display (12 megapixel), an iPhone 11 Pro (12 megapixel), a 14-inch MacBook Pro (2 megapixel) and the 5K LG monitor (2 megapixel). I shared frames with a group of colleagues, without saying which came from which. The group was unanimous, ranking the Apple Studio Display’s webcam dead last. Naturally, the iPhone came in first.

The Verge editor-in-chief Nilay Patel has found the built-in camera to produce images that look “awful in good light and downright miserable in low light.”

I’ve tried it connected to the Mac Studio and on my MacBook Pro running macOS 12.3, and on both machines, it produces a grainy, noisy image with virtually no detail. I tried it in FaceTime, in Zoom, in Photo Booth, in QuickTime — you name it, it’s the same sad image quality. Turning off the Center Stage feature that follows you around the room doesn’t help. Turning portrait mode on and off doesn’t help.

Keys features of the Studio Display

One of the key features of the Studio Display is its camera in the top bezel rocking a twelve-megapixel ultra-wide sensor, which allows it to support Apple’s Center Stage feature. With Center Stage, available in FaceTime and other compatible video apps, machine learning analyses footage to apply crops and zooms in real-time to keep everyone in the frame. Read: Apple Studio FAQ: Everything you need to know

What Is Compatibility Testing Forward Backward Testing

Compatibility

In simple terms, compatibility is the state in which two different things can coexist without conflicting. In real world, milk is compatible with water, oil and water are not compatible with each other.

Compatibility Testing

Compatibility testing is sub-category of software testing performed to determine whether the software under test can function on different hardware, operating systems, applications, network environments and mobile devices. It is a non-functional testing and is performed only after the software becomes stable.

The main objective of compatibility testing is to check the functionality of the software on different software, hardware, networks, etc. It is essential to software development and implementation as it avoids future problems in terms of compatibility.

Types of Compatibility Tests

Hardware − It determines whether the software is compatible with various hardware configurations or not.

Software − It determines whether the developed software is compatible with various other software or not, e.g., MS WORD must be compatible with other software such as MS Outlook, MS Excel, etc.

Operating Systems − It determines whether the software under test is compatible with various OS like Windows, Unix, Mac OS, etc.

Network − It checks the performance of the software in a network in terms of various parameters such as bandwidth, operating speed, and capacity. It also tests the software under test in different networks with all parameters that were specified earlier.

Browser − It tests the compatibility of a website under test with various browsers, e.g., Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, etc.

Devices − It tests the compatibility of the software under test with various devices such as USB port, printer, scanner, Bluetooth, etc.

Mobile − It tests whether the software under test is compatible with various mobile platforms such as Android, iOS, etc.

Software Versions − It determines whether the software under test is compatible various software versions. For example, testing whether Microsoft Windows is compatible with Windows 8.

Types of Compatibility Testing

Backward Compatibility Testing − This testing is performed to check the behaviour and compatibility of the hardware or software with their older versions. This testing is predictable because all the changes from the older versions are known.

Forward Compatibility Testing − This process is used to check the behaviour and compatibility of the software or hardware with their recent or new versions. It is difficult to predict forward compatibility testing because the changes made in the newer versions are unknown.

Tools for Compatibility Testing

BrowserStack − This tool enables software engineers test websites and mobile applications in different browsers and platforms. It provides tools such Live, Automate, App Live, and App Automate, using which the cost can be maintained. These tools also help reduce time, expenditure, and maintenance costs.

Virtual Desktops − This tool is used to test the software in various operating systems as virtual machines. Multiple systems can be connected and their results can be compared.

LambdaTest − This open-source tool is used to test web applications on any mobile browser and desktop browser. It offers a screenshot feature which helps take full page screenshot of web pages. This tool lets test applications on real browsers, and provides a large number of mobile and desktop browsers to verify the compatibility of the application.

BrowseEMAII − This tool is used to run applications on different OS, like Linux, Windows, macOS, etc. BrowseEMAII is a cross-browser testing tool used to test applications on almost all mobile browsers and desktop. It can be directly used on local machine in local network.

TestingBot − This tool is used to test the application on various browsers such as Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Internet Explorer, Safari, etc. In this tool, the screenshots from multiple browsers and platforms can be compared and the responsive layout of the application can also be tested. It offers a number of browser versions for automation testing.

How to do Compatibility Testing

The preliminary stage defines the set of environments the software under test is expected to run on.

The tester or the testing team must possess proper knowledge and skills of the software or hardware to understand the expected behaviour of the software in different configurations.

The environment must be established to test with various platforms, devices, networks to verify whether the software can run well under various configurations.

Report the bugs discovered during testing. Resolve the defects and other problems. Conduct the test again to confirm that all the defects have been fixed.

Example of Compatibility Testing

Consider that you have created a complex excel sheet to track the project, resources, expenditure, etc. using Excel 2000. You then update your MS Office 2000 to MS Office 2010. It is expected that the functions working on MS Office 2000 still work on the update version. That is, the assets you created with the older version should work on the updated version. But, if these assets do not support the updated version, then an appropriate migration path should be provided to you so that you can migrate easily from the older version to the current one.

Need of Compatibility Testing

To make sure that customer(s) is(are) completely satisfied.

To provide services across various platforms.

To detect bugs or defects while the software is in development phase.

Compatibility Testing Issue

These issues arise in a single platform, and not in another platform. The compatibility issues are commonly UI (user interface) issues.

Alignment issue

Overlap issue

Scattered issue

Look and Feel issue

Alignment issue

These issues are those in which the elements of the web page is not properly aligned in an appropriate format.

Overlap issue

It may happen that one attribute overlaps with another. This may occur while trying to open the application on different platforms, browsers, environments, etc.

Scattered issue

These issues arise while performing compatibility testing, the application is not compatible with multiple browsers, platforms.

Compatibility issue

This issue occurs when the application runs well in all operating system but not in a specific operating system. The reason is a program written by the application developer works fine in all platforms, but not in a specific platform.

Functionality issue

This issue occurs when a feature of the application is not working as expected in all operating systems or platforms. It is also referred to as functionality defect issue.

Advantages of Compatibility Testing

Compatibility testing helps meet customer requirements and avoid any complaints in the future.

The feedback provided in the testing phase improves the development process.

It not only checks compatibility, but also scalability, usability and stability of the software under test.

It ensures that all the prerequisites are met and agreed upon by the developer and the customer.

It helps gain success in business operations.

It also helps improve the reputation and goodwill of the company.

Compatibility testing helps ensure the software can work under different configurations and its compatibility with the customer’s environment. This testing reduces the overall error of the software. It is comparatively inexpensive and is like a boon that ensures success of the software.

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