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In MLA style, up to two authors are included in a citation. For sources with more than two authors, the citation is shortened with “et al.”

In the Works Cited list, the first author’s name is inverted (surname followed by first name). In an MLA in-text citation, only surnames are included.

Number of authors Works Cited example In-text citation example

1 author

Wallace-Wells, David

. (



2 authors

Oreskes, Naomi, and Erik M. Conway

. (

Oreskes and Conway


3+ authors

Armstrong, Anne K., et al.


Armstrong et al.


The author element specifies the main creator of the source. For audiovisual sources, this may be the director, composer, or painter, for example. The author may also be an organization.

If no author at all is specified, start your citation with the source title instead.

Sources with multiple authors

For each source, list the authors in the order they appear in the source itself (not in alphabetical order).

Multiple authors in the Works Cited

The first author’s name is always inverted. The last name comes first, followed by a comma, then the first name (and any middle initials, if relevant).

When there are two authors, the second author’s name is not inverted:

When there are three or more authors, only list the first author, followed by a comma and “et al.”:

Multiple authors in in-text citations

In an MLA in-text citation, you may name the author either in parentheses or in the main text.

When there are two authors, simply cite both surnames, separated by “and”.

When there are three or more authors, cite the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” if the citation appears in parentheses. If you cite in the main text, instead of “et al.”, write “and colleagues” or “and others”.

Number of authors Author named in parentheses Author named in the text

2 authors (

Oreskes and Conway

84) As

Oreskes and Conway

illustrate… (84).

3+ authors (

Armstrong et al.


Armstrong and colleagues

suggest that… (127).

Sources with corporate authors

Sometimes sources are created by corporate authors, such as institutions, government agencies, and other organizations, with no individual authors credited. In this case, simply cite the name of the organization in place of the author name.

When citing corporate authors, omit articles (the/a/an) at the start of organization names.

In-text citation with corporate authorJust under 40% of the United States population, a total of 123 million people, resides in a coastal county (

U.S. Global Change Research Program

ch. 9).

In this example, the publisher is separate from the organization. Sometimes, an organization is both the author and the publisher. In this situation, do not list the organization as author. Instead, start the citation with the source title, and list the organization as the publisher only.

Publications from government agencies

If you are citing a publication from a government agency, start with the name of the government and follow with the name of the agency. Always arrange the entities from largest to smallest.

Note that in the in-text citation, you should abbreviate names longer than four words.

In-text citation with government agency as authorMore than 30 sites have been approved for the release of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) for research and development purposes (

Great Britain, Department for Environment


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Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

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Sources with no author

In-text citation with no authorIn the final presidential debate, efforts were made to reduce the amount of interruptions (

“U.S. Election 2023”


Citing contributors other than authors

Some sources are created by many different people. If your discussion of the source focuses on the contribution of someone other than the main author (e.g. when analyzing an actor’s performance or comparing translations of a text), you may cite them in the author position with a label specifying their role (e.g. performer or translator). Don’t include this label in the in-text citation.

Citing the editor of a collection

Usually, when citing an edited collection, you should cite the author of the specific chapter or work. However, if you want to cite an entire collection or anthology, cite the editor(s) in the author position, followed by a label specifying their role. Don’t include the label in the in-text citation.

Double surnames, hyphens, titles, and suffixes

If an author has more than one surname, include all of them in the surname position. For example, Federico Garcia Lorca would be listed in the works cited as Garcia Lorca, Federico, and in an in-text citation as (Garcia Lorca).

If there is a hyphen in the author’s name, keep the hyphen exactly as it appears in the source.

Do not include titles, affiliations, and degrees in source citations. For example, Sir Walter Scott would be listed as Scott, Walter.

If an author has a name with an essential suffix (one that distinguishes them from identically named members of the same family, such as “Jr.” or a roman numeral), include this at the end of the name. For example, John D. Rockefeller IV would be listed as Rockefeller, John D., IV.

Pseudonyms and simplified names

When writing in MLA, it is acceptable to use pseudonyms and simplified names of famous authors. It’s usually best to list all of an author’s works under one consistent name, even if different names appear in the sources themselves.

Commonly accepted pseudonyms and simplified names include:

Dante Alighieri → Dante

Mary Ann Evans → George Eliot

Samuel Clemens → Mark Twain

Foreign-language names

Names from languages that do not use the Latin alphabet, such as Chinese or Russian, may vary in spelling. If this is the case, find the most authoritative variant (i.e. the variant favored by an authoritative source, such as an academic or government publication) and apply that throughout your Works Cited list and in-text citations.

Asian languages

In Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese, the author name will often appear with the surname first, followed by the first name. In this case, do not include a comma between the surname and first name when creating the source reference, as the name is already inverted.

Example format in source Example format in source reference

Surname first Gao Xingjian Gao Xingjian

Surname second Kenzaburo Oe Oe




The various articles in French have different rules, which can even depend on the number of syllables in the name.

Article Rule Example

de — names with multiple syllables

Keep with first name

Do not capitalize

Maupassant, Guy de

de — names with one syllable

Keep with last name

Do not capitalize

de Gaulle, Charles

de — in English-language contexts*

Keep with surname


De Quincey, Thomas


Keep with surname

Do not capitalize

d’Arcy, Pierre


Keep with surname


Du Bos, Charles


Keep with surname


Des Periers, Bonaventures

* English-language context means when the author writes in English but happens to have a French name.


For German names, von is usually considered part of the first name. However, in an English-language context, the von stays with the surname. For example, Von Trapp, Maria.


For Italian names, da, de, del, della, di and d’ are capitalized and treated as part of the surname. For example, Di Costanzo, Angelo.


For Spanish names, de is not treated as part of the surname. For example, Rueda, Lope de. However, del stays with the surname and is always capitalized. For example, Del Rio, Angel.

You may come across some Spanish authors with more than one surname. Often these authors are commonly known by one part of their surname, but you must include the entire last name—and alphabetize according to that—in your Works Cited list. For example, Garcia Lorca, Federico (commonly known as Lorca).

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Gahan, C. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

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President Names First Warren Professors

President Names First Warren Professors George Annas and James Collins win distinguished faculty award

George Annas (top), the Edward R. Utley Professor of Health Law, Bioethics, and Human Rights and chair of the School of Public Health department of health law, bioethics and human rights, and James Collins, a College of Engineering professor of biomedical engineering.

President Robert A. Brown has appointed two faculty members as the first William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professors at Boston University: George Annas, the Edward R. Utley Professor of Health Law, Bioethics, and Human Rights and chair of the School of Public Health department of health law, bioethics and human rights, and James Collins, a College of Engineering professor of biomedical engineering.

“The exceptional contributions of George Annas and Jim Collins certainly fit the high standards envisioned when we created the Warren Professorships,” says Brown.

Annas, who is also a professor in the School of Medicine and the School of Law, says the award “should be seen as an honor to my colleagues in the department of health law, bioethics, and human rights, as much as to me.”

Annas earned a J.D. from Harvard Law School and an M.P.H. from Harvard School of Public Health, where he was a Joseph P. Kennedy Fellow in Medical Ethics. After graduating from law school, he clerked for Justice John V. Spalding of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and he came to Boston University in 1972 as the director of LAW’s Center for Law and Health Sciences.

Annas is the author or editor of 16 books on health law and bioethics and is an expert on patient rights. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, cochair of the American Bar Association’s Committee on Health Rights and Bioethics, and a member of the Committee on Human Rights of the National Academies. He is the cofounder of Global Lawyers and Physicians, a transnational professional association of lawyers and physicians working together to promote human rights and health. He has held a variety of government regulatory posts.

Collins is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, a position he holds concurrently with his BU appointment. He also is cofounder and codirector of the University’s Center for BioDynamics. A Rhodes scholar, he holds a Ph.D. in medical engineering from Oxford and has been a member of the College of Engineering biomedical engineering faculty since 1990. He has been recognized as the ENG Biomedical Engineering Teacher of the Year and the Professor of the Year. In 2000, he won the Metcalf Cup and Prize for Excellence in Teaching. He is a 2003 recipient of a MacArthur Fellows Program award.

“I am delighted and very appreciative to be selected as one of the first Warren Professors,” says Collins. “I would like to thank Bob Brown and the selection committee for this marvelous honor. My academic career has benefited tremendously from Boston University’s support and celebration of high-risk interdisciplinary work. I look forward to continuing such work and teaching BU students for many years to come.”

Last week, Collins also was named as the recipient of Drexel University’s inaugural Anthony J. Drexel Exceptional Achievement Award, which comes with a $100,000 prize and recognizes “a member of a U.S. institution whose work transforms both research and the society it serves.” Collins has pioneered the application of nonlinear dynamics to biological systems and the developing field of synthetic biology. His research has led to the development of novel bioengineering devices and techniques, while making innovative contributions at multiple biological scales. He has 130 archival publications and has 10 issued patents and 15 pending patents. He has been named a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, a Fellow of the American Physical Society, and a Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering. He won the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award, the Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar Award, and the Scientific American 50 Award, given to 50 outstanding leaders in research, industry, and politics.

Art Jahnke can be reached at [email protected].

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Storage Author Talks About Virtualization And More

If you want to learn about SANs, NAS devices, I-SCSI and InfiniBand, you do far worse than reading the second edition of Marc Farley’s tome — Building Storage Networks (McGraw-Hill/Osborne Media). In fact, the Storage Networking Industry Association recommends Farley’s book as a “must-read for anyone considering designing and carrying out storage networks.”

Free of vendor references, Farley’s concisely written and illustrated book explains everything from piecing together the I/O path to wiring storage networks and clusters with InfiniBand.

As an independent consultant in the network storage industry, Farley shares with an interviewer his views about storage trends and how to avoid potential potholes in a network storage roadmap. Here’s what he had to say about what’s hot and what’s not.

Q. Are organizations sorting through the variety of SAN topologies or just keeping things simple?

Most organizations are building small SANs – a single server connected to a single storage subsystem via a switch. Because of their customers’ needs for around-the-clock availability of storage, the financial services players have gotten a little more sophisticated about cross-connected SAN topology. At the very minimum, you’ll find a SAN that has two servers, two storage subsystems, and two SAN switches. Each server and subsystem has two SAN ports. Each switch connects to each server and each subsystem. You’ll also see a few SANs that have large storage subsystems with many ports.

Q. So when do you think organizations are going to be building the type of SAN topologies the vendors have put down on paper?

The beauty of all the cross-connections is to provide redundancy and availability to the storing side between storage and servers. You’re also able to maintain and to upgrade both servers and storage and not loose access to the data. Bus topologies just don’t work for these things.

SAN virtualization isn’t a panacea or a solution in of itself. The critical issue here is the persistence of the virtualization metadata and whether or not it can be recovered in the event of a disaster. My fear about installing some vendor’s SAN virtualization is you could have a disaster and then have no way to create the virtualization you had before. This limitation would make data recovery impossible and it’s one of the real downsides of being careless with virtualization.

To this end, you want to work with vendors that know how to recover and make sure the information can be backed up. Veritas knows virtualization better than any other vendor. Veritas does virtualization by writing to the private areas on the hard disk. So, you have data that knows where it belongs and how it works.

Q. What do you think of doing SAN virtualization with a separate appliance?

You use SAN virtualization because you have a capacity issue and you want to lump some volumes together. What happens when you hit the wall the next time? Do you put another layer of virtualization over that? If you do, then how do you know you can recover? You made it more difficult to recover. Why? If a disaster strikes, you’ll have to be calm enough to know how to put all of the layers back together. Don’t think so. You’ll probably opt for a backup and recovery only to find that it is broken. So if you build a huge complex storage repository, the chances of your backing it up and recovering don’t look good.

Q. Your book has several chapters about InfiniBand and I-SCSI? When will these things be more than beacon along the horizon?

InfiniBand is several years away; it’ll happen, but it’s terribly complex. Storage over IP is a great deal, which will happen. On the other hand, the selection of TCP/IP as a transport protocol for I-SCSI is a mistake. The Internet Engineering Task Force requested TCP/IP because you’d be able to leverage old technology. Everyone has warm fuzzies about TCP/IP, except storage folks. We don’t like to have our I/Os cut up into little pieces and sprinkled around whatever path is available. It may have been faster to develop something new then try to fit storage in some old framework.

Q. What storage trends turn you on right now?

I’m excited about distributed file systems, which separate the data representation functions from the data structure functions, which manages where all the data goes. If you put the data structure function in a storage subsystem, you get an intelligent storage subsystem that allows you to manage data. Tricord is doing it; other companies are developing file systems that’ll do it.

I’m also interested in something that requires a lot of work — changing the routing and topology used for storage networks. So far, we’ve borrowed things from Ethernet and IP. I’d like to see a new topology algorithm created, and new ways to create topology databases and distribute them.

15 Worst Android Phone Names, Ranked

Read also: The best Android phones of 2023

Rather than letting these companies off the hook, we decided to round up all the offenders and rank them from worse to worst. Without further ado, here are the worst Android phone names, ranked.

13. Motorola Flipout

Don’t have a cow, man. The Motorola Flipout was named after the flip out QWERTY keyboard hidden beneath its 2.8-inch square display. This meant that the keyboard was also 2.8-inches, which is truly the ideal keyboard size (for infants).

To be fair, the Motorola Flipout didn’t have a lot of options for names. The other option, the Motorola Twist, would have given away the fact that the entire design was ripped from the Nokia 7705 Twist.

11. LG V30S ThinQ

The LG V30S ThinQ (pronounced “Thin-kyoo”, as in Thin-kyoo could’ve come up with a better name?) was the first smartphone to bear LG’s unbearable ThinQ branding.

LG has kept the controversial ThinQ branding on subsequent phones, but maybe someday the company will do the un-ThinQ-able and change it to something better.

10. Royole FlexPai

As the world’s first foldable phone, Royole could have named its device whatever it wanted. Perplexingly, it went with FlexPai, because the display is flexible, I guess. When Samsung announced its folding phone a few months later, it was called the — wait for it — Fold.

Read also: Foldable phones with flexible displays: Every device announced so far

Royole absolutely deserves credit for being first, but the FlexPai stands out as being the least compelling folding device with the worst name by far. Here’s a quick take from resident pun-in-chief Hadlee Simons:

Weird Flexpai but okay

— Hadlee Simons (@HadleeSimons) October 18, 2023

6. HTCChaCha/Salsa

The HTCChaCha (known as the even more egregious HTCChaChaCha in some parts of the world) and its full-screened cousin, the HTCSalsa, were launched way back in 2011 with Android Gingerbread. I wouldn’t recommend combining gingerbread with latin dancing, but apparently someone at HTCsigned off on the idea.

The main draw of the ChaCha and Salsa was their integration with Facebook, with a dedicated button that opened the social media giant. The convenience was almost worth the “Posted from my HTCChaCha” message at the end of every status update.

4. Samsung Galaxy S II Epic 4G Touch

2011’s Samsung Galaxy S II Epic 4G Touch was one of the most impressive phones of its time. It offered a monstrous 4.5-inch Super AMOLED display and a blazing fast 1.2Gz dual-core processor. Unfortunately, there wasn’t much money left in the budget for naming, so the task was crowdsourced to a boisterous group of pre-teens found on Xbox Live.

As the name (maybe?) implies, the Epic 4G Touch still used Samsung’s clunky TouchWiz interface, which even in 2011 was anything but epic.

3. Verykool Apollo Quattro

Someone was sipping the Verykool-aid when they named this Android phone. Despite coming out in 2023, it packs a very un-kool 1GB of RAM and 8GB of internal storage. And no, there wasn’t a Verykool Apollo Tre, Due, or Uno.

But hey, it does have a fingerprint sensor, which is more than can be said about the Pixel 4.

Honorable mentions

How To Set Messages To Display Full Names On Iphone & Ipad

The Messages app in some iOS versions defaults to shortening contacts names to only display their first name. That is done to make things look nice and tidy, and it also helps to prevent an overlap between the contact name and navigational elements on iPhone screens while avoiding name truncation. An obvious problem with this default setting reveals itself if you have contacts that share first names, which is probably just about everyone.

How to Make Messages Display Full Names of Contacts on iPhone & iPad

Open Settings and go to “Mail, Contacts, Calendars” then scroll down to the ‘Contacts’ section

Select “Short Name” and flip “Short Name” to OFF to display the full name of contacts

Go back to Messages and open an individual thread to see the change

Turning off Short Name will make things look like they did prior to iOS 7.

Do note that some full names do not fit into the allotted titlebar of iOS’s Messages app and they might wind up truncating the names anyway with a ‘…’ at a randomly placed interval.

When showing full names the shortening varies based upon if you have bold text enabled, the length of the name, and also the size of the screen, with larger screen devices being less impacted than the smaller iPhone and iPod touch displays.

If you see a lot of name shortening going then choose one of the settings based upon initials, showing the first name and last initial can be a good compromise to prevent confusion and also still have things look decent.

How to Change Messages to Display Names with Initials on iPhone & iPad

If you experience truncation with the full name shown, or if you’d rather have some tidiness to the windows, you can use various Initial based options instead:

Open Settings and go to “Mail, Contacts, Calendars” then scroll down to the ‘Contacts’ section and go back to “Short Name”, then choose one of the following options:

First Name & Last Initial – good middle ground choice

First Initial & Last Name Only

First Name Only – the annoying default

Last Name Only – OK if you’re on a football team

Optionally, set “Prefer Nicknames” to your preference

Go back to Messages and view a thread to see the change

First Name and Last Initial is also a decent choice because it eliminates messaging confusion in most situations, while still looking decent in the Messages window. The screenshot below shows a message thread showing the full first name and only the last initial:

If you never would have thought to find this on your own, don’t feel too bad, it’s admittedly peculiar for a Messages setting to reside under the “Mail, Contacts, Calendars” preferences rather than the “Messages” settings, but that’s where it is for now. Don’t be surprised if it gets reassigned to the Messages panels at some point in a future update. This change was first introduced in iOS 7 and carried forward, and so depending on when you got your iOS device and what version of software is running on iPad or iPhone, the messages may display differently.

If you never would have thought to find this on your own, don’t feel too bad, it’s admittedly peculiar for a Messages setting to reside under the “Mail, Contacts, Calendars” preferences rather than the “Messages” settings, but that’s where it is for now. Don’t be surprised if it gets reassigned to the Messages panels at some point in a future update. This change was first introduced in iOS 7 and carried forward, and so depending on when you got your iOS device and what version of software is running on iPad or iPhone, the messages may display differently.

Still getting the hang of iPhone and iPad? Don’t miss our many tips and tricks to get a better grasp of things.


Fixed Options In Searchbox In Reactjs

Sometimes, developers require to add the fixed options in the search box while creating the search bar. For example, you are developing a web application containing different web pages related to cars, bikes, other vehicles, etc. Also, you require to add a search bar on every web page. So, you may be required to add the fix tags like car, bike, or some car or bike brands as fixed tag in the search bar to highlight.

In this tutorial, we will learn to add fixed options in search box in ReactJS using the AutoComplete component of the Material UI library.

Users can execute the below command in the React project to install the Material UI library.

npm install @mui/material @mui/styled-engine-sc styled-components Syntax

Users should follow the syntax below to use the AutoComplete component of Material UI to add fixed options in the search bar.

<Autocomplete multiple } value={currentValues} options={searchOptions}

In the above syntax, currentValues contains all selected values and fixed values.

Example 1

In the example below, we have used the AutoComplete component of Material UI to implement the search bar. We have stored the car brands in the array. Also, we have added the “BMW” as a fixed option.

After that, we have passed the ‘multiple’ attribute to the AutoComplete component to allow users to select multiple values. We have used the ‘searchOptions’ as an option of the AutoComplete component. Also, whenever the user selects or removes an option from the search bar, we change the value of ‘currentValues’ by adding selected and fixed options.

In the output, users can observe that ‘BMW’ is pre-selected, and users can’’t remove it as it is disabled.

import React, { useState } from "react"; import TextField from "@mui/material/TextField"; import Autocomplete from "@mui/material/Autocomplete"; import { Chip } from "@mui/material"; export default function App() { let searchOptions = [ "BMW", "Audi", "Mercedes", "Toyota", "Honda", "Ford", "Huyndai", "Kia", "Nissan", "Mazda", "Chevrolet", "Jeep", "Fiat", "Volkswagen", "Renault", "Volvo", "Suzuki", "Scion", "Smart", "Tesla" ]; let fixedOptions = ["BMW"]; let [currentValues, setValue] = useState([...fixedOptions]); return ( {" "} option search.{" "} <Autocomplete multiple Style={{ width: 400 }} autoComplete autoHighlight freeSolo setValue([ ...fixedOptions, ]); }} value={currentValues} options={searchOptions} )} ); } Example 2

In the example below also, we have used the AutoComplete component to implement the search bar. Here, we extract the data for the search options from the API. From the API, we get multiple products as a response, and we use the titles of the product as a search option. Also, we have fixed two products title for the search options.

In the output, users can observe that two product titles are fixed in the search bar.

import React, { useState, useEffect } from "react"; import TextField from "@mui/material/TextField"; import Autocomplete from "@mui/material/Autocomplete"; export default function App() { const [searchOptions, setSearchOptions] = useState([]); const data = await response.json(); for (let i = 0; i < data.products.length; i++) { } }; fetchSearchOptions(); }, []); let fixedOptions = ["iPhone 9","OPPOF19"]; let [currentValues, setValue] = useState([...fixedOptions]); return ( {" "} option search. {" "} <Autocomplete multiple Style={{ width: 400 }} autoComplete autoHighlight freeSolo setValue([ ...fixedOptions, ]); }} value = {currentValues} options = {searchOptions} )} ); }

Users learned to add fixed options to the search bar in ReactJS. Here, we have used the AutoComplete component to implement the search bar. Users can also explore the other variants of the Autocomplete component on the material UI’s official website.

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