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Recent photos and video depicting an Apple Watch Edition being unboxed provide an interesting insight into engineering that went into the creation of force sensing on the wrist-worn device, with details that go well beyond Apple’s rather scarce description on the Technology section of the Apple Watch mini-site.

As you know, not only does the Apple Watch display respond to touch-based gestures like tapping and swiping, it also uses Force Touch technology to respond to the pressure of your finger.

Now, gold Apple Watch Editions ship with a rather informative booklet that mostly deals with Apple’s manufacturing process. In addition, this booklet sheds more light on the implementation of Force Touch technology and other hardware features of the devices such as sapphire screen protection, Apple’s smallest speaker yet and more.

The official Apple Watch promotional video taught us that Force Touch uses “tiny electrodes around the display recognize the difference between a tap and a press.”

“So as well as sensing touch, the Apple Watch display also senses force—quite literally adding a new dimension to the user interface”.

But we knew that already.

What we didn’t quite know was that Force Touch technology uses “a multilayer sensor that lies between the front crystal and the watch housing”.

The booklet explains:

Several layers of polyimide, copper electrodes, silicone and adhesive are molded into ultra-thin sheets that serve as a capacitor. This capacitor is so sensitive, it can measure deflections of less than 1 micron.

For those wondering, a micron is one-millionth of a meter.

The force sensor is encapsulated in a water resistant gasket that protects the internal components. “And to make Force Touch absolutely precise, every Apple Watch display is individually calibrated,” Apple explains.

By comparison, this is the pretty uninformative Force Touch description from the Apple Watch Technology webpage:

In addition to recognizing touch, Apple Watch senses force, adding a new dimension to the user interface. Force Touch uses tiny electrodes around the flexible Retina display to distinguish between a light tap and a deep press, and trigger instant access to a range of contextually specific controls.

With Force Touch, pressing firmly on the screen brings up additional controls in apps like Messages, Music, and Calendar. It also lets you select different watch faces, pause or end a workout, search an address in Maps, and more. Force Touch is the most significant new sensing capability since Multi‑Touch.

The booklet provides a number of other tidbits related to key hardware features of the Apple Watch. Here are a few notable excerpts.

Digital Crown

Apple describes the Digital Touch as “a rotary optical encoding device” that houses “a laser-etched encoder wheel with tiny contrasting stripes.”

The contrasting stripes are then“read by an optical motion sensor using an infrared LED and an array of photodiodes” when you turn the Digital Crown.

Another page features a close-up of the 18-karat gold Digital Crown.

Taptic Engine

Apple writes that “understanding the intimacy of touch was paramount” in designing the Taptic Engine. To create a haptic vocabulary users would easily recognize, Apple “worked with experts in the field of haptics.”

The Taptic Engine is “a highly efficient, magnetically stabilized actuator using neodymium magnets, high-density tungsten alloys and precision bearings”. The actuator creates taps on your wrist, which are “informed by analog waveforms finely tuned to produce a range of expressions, from delicate to organic to mechanical”.


In creating its smallest speaker yet, Apple created a barometric vent that equalizes internal and external air pressure rather than enclose the speaker within a membrane of Teflon plastic, which increases audio distortion.

“Apple engineers solved this by designing a speaker diaphragm made of water-resistant material: dual-part liquid silicone.” Thanks to its softness and responsiveness, the speaker produces “clean sound with less distortion”.

Biometric Sensor

The heart rate sensor on the back of the device uses four LEDs, two green and two infrared, and two photodiode detectors to measure your heart rate. The back crystal is made by “heating zirconia in a die at 2460 degrees Fahrenheit for over 30 hours,” explains the company.

The sapphire lenses are then incorporated and the entire back is “polished to a surface roughness of only three nanometers” which ensures “absolute seamlessness” between the zirconia and the sapphire.


Speaking of sapphire, the second strongest transparent material after diamond, both Apple Watch and Apple Watch Edition feature sapphire screen protection. Apple grows high quality single-crystal boules over two weeks before harvesting them, to ensure they meet its stringent quality control.

“Diamond particles are then used for cutting, grinding and polishing” the sapphire, a process Apple claims yields “an incredibly precise, optically clear, scratch-resistant crystal”.

What they don’t tell you is that the sapphire-coated screen actually degrades image quality because the material doesn’t perform as well in high ambient light and at large viewing angles compared to the traditional glass.


Apple chose fluroelastomer for the Sports Band due to the material’s thermal and water resistance, flexibility, strength and durability. A special compression molding process alters the molecular structure of the fluoroelastomer within the die.

The method requires twice the curing time of typical injection molding and results in a polymer that’s “both dense and strong” while giving the Sport Band its “soft feel and comfortable fit”.

Custom alloys

Apple’s special kind of 18-karat gold is twice as hard as the traditional gold while preserving its trademark color and hue. The alloys are heat-treated and compressed multiple times to yield “dense, pore-free billets” of strong 18-karat gold.

As for the watch housing, CNC machining processes yield tolerances accurate to within 0.03 millimeter.

Straps and Bands

They’re also using a layer of Vectran between two leather layers.

A liquid-crystal polymer stronger than Kevlar, Vectran was also used in “manufacturing critical components of NASA’s Mars Rover”.

I find everything about this booklet — its layout, wording, typography and concept — quite fascinating.

In addition to the booklet and a cleaning cloth with the word “Edition” embossed into the material, the Apple Watch Edition’s leather-covered box has a Lightning connector with integrated MagSafe charger.

All photos via MacRumors forums.

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My Locked Apple Watch Edition Ebay Adventure

eBay is the Wild West of shopping. There are some rules, but mostly its a wasteland of objects and you can call in the Marshall, to continue my terrible pun, if you need to report someone or get your money back. It is not as bad as Craigslist. I generally stay away from both.

However, my desire for a shiny white Apple Watch Edition and my unwillingness to pay $1,350 for a new one, drove me into the world’s largest yard sale, eBay. After purchasing the Apple Watch Edition Series 2, it was a full three weeks before I was able to use it, thanks to the disaster that is Apple Authentication Lock. The saga has me swearing to never order a used Apple device again.

eBay Apple Watch Edition saga

As an Apple tech blogger, I always buy the newest Apple hardware. Thankfully, I am required to buy the latest and greatest so I can keep up with accessories and to speak intelligently about the new gadgets. Otherwise, it might be difficult to justify to the wife! But, there is just something completely crazy about buying an Apple Watch Edition. It is purely for looks and clout. I felt like, if I could find one just a little more expensive than a Sport model, I would go for it… and I did!

After losing an auction to someone for a like-new Apple Watch Series 2 at $630, I found a posting that was also like-new, “only worn several times,” but closed in a week. The images backed up the Seller’s claim that it was flawless. Therefore, I contacted the Seller and we agreed on $650, if she would close the auction and let me buy the watch on demand. Deal!

She shipped me the Apple Watch via guaranteed two-day shipping, arriving on Thursday, February 22. Now, this is when things started to go sideways. This entire article, from now forward, is basically proving my point: beware of buying your devices anywhere but from Apple. Despite guaranteed two-day shipping, it thankfully came in three days, right before I left town for a week. Not that big of a deal, but, the start of a mess.

iCloud Activation Lock

Saturday, February 24, 24 hours later, she confirms the new iCloud address is now associated to her and she calls Apple back, hoping to get the login information. She is only then informed, there is an iCloud Account Recovery process, which has only started. Apple is able to associate her iCloud address with her current Apple ID, in 24 hours, but there is a full Account Recovery process, which takes two weeks to clear. Again, had she remembered anything, either the email or password, this would not have been a necessary step.

Essentially, Apple sets the account in a recovery mode, that monitors the account for suspicious activity for two full weeks. For example, maybe she is trying to recover someone else’s account. If the account is accessed from a device that is not owned by her, the recovery will fail. It is all about security.

Start the clock again. A full two weeks later, on March 9, she received a clearance from Apple on the Account Recovery. She is provided the full email address and a temporary password to get into and fully reclaim the account. She logs into chúng tôi and then remotely removes the Watch from her account, which should erase the Activation Lock. I then try to re-setup the Watch, but the Activation Lock is still turned on for some reason. That should not be the case. We are stuck again.

The only way for me to clear the Activation Lock screen is for her to text me her Apple ID and Password. Never do this. Do not ever send someone your Apple ID and Password. They can access anything in your account, including contacts, calendars, and even pictures. Despite risking her personal information, she sent me her credentials, so that I could clear the Activation Lock. I was in! Once I went through the setup process, I was able to assign the Watch to my account and it is no longer locked to her iCloud account.

The eBay lesson

There are so many opportunities for this to have all gone wrong. Thankfully, the Seller was amazing to work with and overly trusting of me as the Buyer. Along the way, there were a few times when I felt like I was getting ‘had.’ I would lose my investment, have an Apple Watch paperweight, and just hate myself for taking the risk of buying used Apple products.

There are a few important lessons here, first of which is thinking twice before buying used Apple products. Apple does an incredible job with their security features. Consequently, if the original owner is not logged out correctly, you may just have a brick coming to you in the mail.

Second, make sure to ask the seller if the device has been removed from their Find My (Device) feature via iCloud. If the seller does not fully comprehend that question, I would pass on the purchase.

Third, the device will hopefully be reset to factory defaults. But, with Apple Watches, they can be reset to factory default, but if the user did not sign out of iCloud first, it will Activation-Lock the device, just like the Series 2 that I received in the mail.

I got very, very lucky in this situation. The Seller was very accommodating, answered all of my questions about how she was trying to get this resolved, and even gave me back $250 via PayPal for the trouble! Can you believe that?! So, I’m very happy upgrading from a Series 0 Sport to a Series 2 Edition, for only $400. I “saved” $1,000! But, it was not without cost, headache, and some nightmare scenarios that could have all gone the wrong way.

Next time, I’ll just stick to buying my devices from Apple. And, I’ll keep my tastes to my affordable price range.

Apple Stores To Act More Like Jewelry Stores For Upcoming Gold Apple Watch

Apple is preparing to take some pages out of the traditional jewelry store playbook. For the upcoming 18-karat gold Apple Watch Edition, Apple is planning several new features for its retail stores to support the device. As we reported several months ago, Apple is planning on allowing customers to actually try on the watches and test out different band styles inside of stores. With the high-expected price tag of the gold watch models, Apple will also step up its security features for stores…

Apple will outfit its official retail stores with safes to house the more expensive, gold “Edition” variants of the upcoming Apple Watch, according to sources. The safes will likely be used to carry both to-be-sold inventory as well as to store demo units from the show floor overnight. The custom-designed safes will be outfitted with Apple Watch MagSafe chargers in order to keep the demo units charged up and ready to go for the next day of business. Apple has already begun installing the safes in some stores ahead of the Apple Watch’s expected release in April…

Earlier this week, 9to5‘s Jeremy Horwitz explained that the Apple Watch Edition will likely have a special sales process, due to its high price, that differentiates it from the less-expensive stainless steel and aluminum models. Sources also say that Apple is getting ready to re-organize Apple Store shelving areas to make room for Apple Watch display tables. Apple is also working on ways to allow prospective buyers to try on Apple Watches inside of the store and play around with different band material and color options.

Apple is also working on special weight scales for its retail stores to weigh the amount of gold in individual Apple Watch Edition variants. The scales will be used to weigh the amount of gold in Apple Watch Editions upon replacement or return. Apple wants to ensure that no gold is removed from the units prior to replacement/return as the gold material is worth a substantial amount of money on secondary markets. The fact that Apple is working on scales further indicates that there will be a notable amount of gold in the Watch and that the device will be pricey.

While the aluminum and glass Apple Watch Sport will start at $349, earlier reports have claimed that the Apple Watch Edition will be priced in the range of thousands of dollars. With that high price tag, combined with materials such as gold, it is important for Apple to take a page out of jewelry store mechanics and ensure that Apple Watches are safely housed prior to sale. In mid-February, Apple will begin sending a pair of Apple Store employees from many of its stores to training sessions in both Cupertino, California and Austin, Texas to learn about the Apple Watch’s functionality.

Apple Stores will also begin moving over to brand new shirts for employees on February 2nd. The new look is more elegant with collars, which matches up nicely with the fashion appeal and pricing of Apple’s upcoming watches.

Story updated Feb. 2 with more details on trying on the Watch as well as information about the gold weight scale systems. 

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Apple Watch Series 7: Features, Release Date, New Design, More

The Apple Watch Series 7 was announced during Apple’s “California Streaming” event with a larger and more durable display followed by its release in October of 2023. It was discontinued in September of 2023 after Apple Watch Series 8 was introduced.


The Apple Watch was first introduced in 2024 and quickly became the best-selling wearable device of the year, reportedly selling 4.2 million units in Q2 2024. When the company introduced the Apple Watch Series 2 later in 2024, Apple labeled the original Apple Watch as “Series 0” while bringing an updated chip with “Series 1” and a brand new “Series 2” Watch.

When Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 3 in 2023 a lot of things changed. The company started seeing the Watch more like a fitness device rather than a fashion one, although it was available in aluminum, stainless steel, and ceramic models. This Watch had a chip 70% faster than its predecessor, increased RAM, and introduced the LTE cellular connectivity variant with 16GB of storage.

Apple Watch Series 4, which launched a year later, featured a major redesign with a screen that was 30% bigger in both models and a 50% improvement on its processor over the Series 3 version. Speakers and microphones were rearranged so they were louder and more useful, and Series 4 introduced the fall detection feature, ECG capabilities, and the second-generation heart rate monitor.

In 2023, the Apple Watch Series 5 was a notable upgrade over the Series 4: Apple introduced an Always-On display with an energy-saving LTOP OLED screen, a built-in compass, doubled the storage to 32GB, and brought back the Edition tier with a ceramic model and a brand new titanium version.

In 2023, Apple announced the Apple Watch Series 6. This Watch brought a new S6 processor, up to 20% faster than its predecessor, a brighter Always-On display, a blood oxygen app, and an always-on altimeter, alongside new health sensors.

In 2023, Apple unveiled the Apple Watch Series 7 with a more durable and larger display, now with 41mm and 45mm options. The Watch is more crack-resistant and can charge faster than previous models. It has the same processor as the Series 6 and maintains the three finishes: aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium.

Apple Watch Series 7: Specs and features More durable and larger display

Unlike all the rumors, the new Apple Watch Series 7 doesn’t feature a new design. Instead, it does have a larger display with 20% more screen area and thinner borders at 1.7mm, 40% smaller than those on Apple Watch Series 6.

This new Apple Watch is available in 41mm and 45mm sizes. While the wrist is down, the Always-On Retina display is up to 70% brighter indoors than the previous Watch, making it easier to see the watch face without having to lift the wrist or wake the display.

Apple Watch Series 7 features a redesigned front crystal with a more robust geometry that is over 50% thicker than that of the Apple Watch Series 6, making it more crack-resistant.

The Watch has also been certified IP6X dust-resistant and has a water resistance rating of WR50, making it a good choice for swimming performances and making users stay relaxed while on the beach or the desert.


Apple Watch Series 7 has the same sensors as Apple Watch Series 6, which means it has a third-generation optical heart sensor, Digital Crown with haptic feedback, a built-in compass, an always-on altimeter, and a second-generation speaker and mic. With Emergency SOS and International emergency calling, you can quickly call for help and alert your emergency contacts.

Apple Watch Series 7 also detect if you’ve taken a hard fall, then automatically calls emergency services for you. The Noise app alerts when decibels reach levels that could damage your hearing. 


Apple Watch Series 7 has the same processor as last year’s Apple Watch Series 6. Even though it has a new name, being called S7, it has the same CPU power. It’s not the first time Apple does something like that. With the Apple Watch Series 5, the S5 chip had the same performance as the S4 SoC but brought a Compass feature built-in as well.

The S7 SiP has a 64-bit dual-core processor and features 32GB of storage. As the S6 chip, it’s 20% faster than the processor found inside the Apple Watch SE.

Apple Watch finishes

With Apple Watch Series 7, Apple brought three different finishes:







Stainless Steel






Space Black.

Apple Watch Series 7 is available since October 15.

Price: How much Apple Watch Series 7 cost?

Apple Watch Series 7 starts at $399. The prices are the same as the last year’s model, as you can see below:

Aluminum, 40mm, GPS: $399

Aluminum, 40mm, GPS + Cellular: $499

Aluminum, 44mm, GPS: $429

Aluminum, 44m, GPS + Cellular: $529

Stainless steel, 40mm, GPS + Cellular: $699

Stainless steel, 44mm, GPS + Cellular: $749

Titanium, 40mm, GPS + Cellular: $849

Titanium, 44mm, GPS + Cellular: $899

Lower prices may be available from Apple’s official Amazon store.


In line with similar promotions offered for iPhone and iPad purchases, Apple says that customers can buy a GPS + Cellular model of the Apple Watch Series 7 and get a $100 rebate when they activate it with T-Mobile/Sprint or Verizon. Apple says: 

You can learn more about it here.

Over at 9to5Toys, you can find the best deals on the Apple Watch Series 7 and other Apple products. Download the 9to5Toys iPhone app to receive push notifications for new deals as well.

watchOS 8

The Apple Watch Series 7 features watchOS 8. It was previewed during the WWDC21 keynote and is available since September 20. Here are its key functions:

New custom Watch Faces;

Focus mode so you can filter out distractions;

New Mindfulness app;

New Pilates and Tai Chi workouts;

Locate misplaced Apple devices with Find Devices, including Items, Devices, and People.

For the Series 7, Apple is also introducing a few tweaks thanks to its larger display. For example, it will be possible to write a message using QuickPath.

Learn more about watchOS 8 here.

watchOS 8.1 features

A month after releasing watchOS 8, the company updated the Apple Watch with version 8.1 with some bug fixes.

watch 8.3 features

Apple skipped watchOS 8.2 and seeded after 8.1, version 8.3 with the following improvements:

Apple Music Voice Plan gives you access to all songs, playlists, and stations in Apple Music using Siri

Support for App Privacy Report to record data and sensor access

Fixes an issue where notifications may interrupt Mindfulness sessions unexpectedly for some users.

watchOS 8.4 features

watchOS 8.4, which was released on January 26, fixed a bug that prevented Apple Watch from being recharged with some third-party chargers. Apart from that, there are no notable features in this operating system.

watchOS 8.5 features

After small updates, watchOS 8.5 brings a handful of new features. Here are the most important:

watchOS 8.6 features

watchOS 8.6 enables the ECG app and irregular rhythm notifications for Apple Watch users in Mexico. With the ECG app, users can take an electrocardiogram directly from their wrist.

According to the release notes, the update also includes “improvements and bug fixes.”

watchOS 8.7 features

According to the release notes, the update includes “improvements and bug fixes.”

watchOS 9

Now that watchOS 9 doesn’t support Apple Watch Series 3 anymore, the operating system revamps old Watch Faces, while adding four new ones. With these new faces, Apple makes them look better on bigger displays. In addition, the company is adding QWERTY keyboard support for more languages for the Apple Watch Series 7 and Series 8 and new QuickType technology with watchOS 9.

watchOS 9 also brings a significant update to the Workout app with a lot of new features for people who love to exercise. For runners, there’s a new Workout Views where they just need to turn the Digital Crown in order to see lots of metrics, which are available during the run:

Activity rings 

Heart Rate Zones 



Apple is also improving the Sleep app with watchOS 9. It now brings more sleep data and there’s a new Medications app that helps you track all the pills and vitamins you take every day.

Wrap up

For Apple Watch Series 5 and Series 6 owners, the Apple Watch Series 7 isn’t a necessary upgrade. For those coming from a Series 4 or older, this new Apple Watch will sure bring improvements: a faster processor, bigger and brighter screen, more sensors, and, also, a slight redesign.

Fastco Interview: Tim Cook Talks Apple Philosophy/Legacy, Apple Watch Skepticism, New Campus & More

Fast Company has an extensive interview with Apple CEO Tim Cook, focusing on what has changed and what has stayed the same since he took over from Steve Jobs. The interview comes a day after FastCo published a sizeable excerpt from the book Becoming Steve Jobs, in which Cook criticized the portrayal of Jobs in Isaacson’s biography.

Cook said that while much has changed, the culture–the fundamental goal of the company–remained the same.

Steve felt that if Apple could do that—make great products and great tools for people—they in turn would do great things. He felt strongly that this would be his contribution to the world at large. We still very much believe that. That’s still the core of this company.

The company has never tried to be first to market, he said, but rather to “have the patience to get it right” … 

Apple took the same approach to the Apple Watch as it took to the iPod, iPhone and iPad, he said.

We weren’t first on the MP3 player; we weren’t first on the tablet; we weren’t first on the smartphone. But we were arguably the first modern smartphone, and we will be the first modern smartwatch—the first one that matters.

Cook said he wasn’t concerned that, so far, many people find it hard to see the value of the Apple Watch.

Yes, but people didn’t realize they had to have an iPod, and they really didn’t realize they had to have the iPhone. And the iPad was totally panned. Critics asked, “Why do you need this?” Honestly, I don’t think anything revolutionary that we have done was predicted to be a hit when released. It was only in retrospect that people could see its value. Maybe this will be received the same way.

He admitted that it is harder for Apple to remain nimble, to resist bureaucracy, as the company has grown.

It’s harder, and you are fighting gravity. […] We’ve turned up the volume on collaboration because it’s so clear that in order for us to be incredibly successful we have to be the best collaborators in the world. The magic of Apple, from a product point of view, happens at this intersection of hardware, software, and services. It’s that intersection. Without collaboration, you get a Windows product […] That’s what’s now happening in Android land.

Part of the secret, Cook said, was a willingness to move on, to walk away from approaches that are no longer appropriate. Apple has repeatedly done this with legacy technologies.

Apple has always had the discipline to make the bold decision to walk away. We walked away from the floppy disk when that was popular with many users. Instead of doing things in the more traditional way of diversifying and minimizing risk, we took out the optical drive, which some people loved. We changed our connector, even though many people loved the 30-pin connector. Some of these things were not popular for quite a while. But you have to be willing to lose sight of the shore and go. We still do that.

Asked if there were areas in which the company had moved on from Steve’s way of doing things, he said that constant change was Steve’s way of doing things.

We change every day. We changed every day when he was here, and we’ve been changing every day since he’s not been here. But the core, the values in the core remain the same as they were in ’98, as they were in ’05, as they were in ’10. I don’t think the values should change. But everything else can change [and] Steve was the best flipper in the world.

Cook sees the new spaceship campus as essential to Apple’s future.

It’s critical that Apple do everything it can to stay informal. And one of the ways that you stay informal is to be together. One of the ways that you ensure collaboration is to make sure people run into each other—not just at the meetings that are scheduled on your calendar, but all the serendipitous stuff that happens every day in the cafeteria and walking around.

Steve’s office in the current campus building is famously still there, just as he left it. Will there be a Steve Jobs office in the new campus, he was asked?

What we’ll do over time, I don’t know. I didn’t want to move in there. I think he’s an irreplaceable person and so it didn’t feel right . . . for anything to go on in that office. So his computer is still in there as it was, his desk is still in there as it was, he’s got a bunch of books in there. Laurene took some things to the house.

I don’t know. His name should still be on the door. That’s just the way it should be. 

While the interview does cover some familiar territory, the whole thing is well worth reading.

Photo: Pete Marovich, Getty Images

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Implementation Of And Gate From Nor Gate

An AND Gate is a basic logic gate that performs the binary multiplication, i.e., it gives a HIGH or Logic 1 output, only when all its inputs are in HIGH or Logic 1 state. On the other hand, a NOR gate is a type of universal logic gate. Therefore, NOR gate can be used to realize any other type of logic gate.

Before going into the implementation of AND gate using NOR gates only, let us discuss the basic theory of AND Gate and NOR Gate first.

What is an AND Gate?

An AND Gate is a basic logic gate. An AND gate may have two or more than two inputs, but gives only one output. The AND gate gives a LOW (Logic 0) output if any one of its inputs is in the LOW or Logic 0 state, otherwise, it gives a HIGH (Logic 1) state as output. Therefore, the output of the AND gate is HIGH or Logic 1 state, only if all its inputs are HIGH or Logic 1 state.

If variables A and B are inputs to the AND gate and Y is the output variable of the AND gate, then the output equation of the AND gate is given by,

$$mathrm{Y = A.B}$$

Where, the ‘.’ (dot) symbol represents the AND operation. It is read as “Y is equal to A AND B”.

The table that show the relationship between inputs and output of the AND gate is referred to as the truth table of AND gate. The following is the truth table of the AND Gate −





Y = A . B













What is a NOR Gate?

NOR Gate is a type of universal logic gate, because this logic gate can be used for realization of any other type of logic gate.

NOR means NOT + OR. That means, the OR output is NOTed or inverted. Therefore, the NOR gate is a combination of OR gate and a NOT gate, i.e.,

$$mathrm{NOR :Gate = OR:Gate + NOT:Gate}$$

A NOR gate is a type of logic gate whose output is HIGH (Logic 1), only when all its inputs are LOW (Logic 0), and it gives an output LOW (Logic 0), even if any of its inputs become HIGH (Logic 1). The logic symbol of a two input NOR gate is shown in Figure-2.

If variables A and B are the input variables and Y is the output variable of the NOR gate, then the output of the NOR gate is given by,

$$mathrm{Y = overline{A + B} = (A + B)’}$$

It is read as “Y is equal to A plus B whole bar”.

The following is the truth table of the NOR gate −





Y = A . B













Now, let us discuss the implementation of AND Gate from NOR Gate.

Implementation of AND Gate from NOR Gate

As mentioned above that the NOR gate is a logic gate, therefore, we may use it to realize an AND gate. The realization of an AND gate from the NOR gates only is shown Figure-3.

Thus, for the realization of an AND gate from NOR gate, we require 3 NOR gates. Where, the first two NOR gates are used to complement the input variables A and B, and the third NOR gate is used to produce an output equivalent to the AND operation.

The outputs of the first two NOR gates are,

$$mathrm{Y_1 = bar{A}}$$

$$mathrm{Y_2 = bar{B}}$$

The output of the third NOR gate is,

$$mathrm{Y = overline{bar{A} + bar{B}} = bar{bar{A}} cdot bar{bar{B}} = A cdot B} $$

This is the output of an AND gate. Hence, the logic circuit using NOR gates shown in Figure-3 is equivalent to the AND gate.

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