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If you’ve had a cold forever that refuses to go away or that seems to be getting worse, there are chances it could be acute or chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis develops from an ongoing cold, whereas chronic bronchitis will entail repeated bouts of this respiratory illness.

In this article we will take you through some telling signs of bronchitis, so you can seek immediate help and prevent it from getting worse.

What is Bronchitis?

Bronchitis is essentially a chest cold that occurs when the bronchial tubes in your lungs become inflamed. Since these tubes are responsible for carrying air in and out of your lungs, bronchitis causes shortness of breath and the tendency to cough up thick mucus.

Acute bronchitis occurs mostly after a viral respiratory infection like the flu, influenza, adenovirus, and the common cold (rhinovirus). However, if the chest cold recurs multiple times, causing damage to the lungs, this is classified as chronic bronchitis which also means that you have COPD- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, which can also present as emphysema.

The symptoms for both types of bronchitis are largely the same, differing mainly in duration, frequency, and intensity.

Causes of Acute Bronchitis

Apart from a viral infection, some other less common causes of acute bronchitis may include −



An enlarged or problematic adenoid tissue, which is a small wad of tissue at the base of the nasal passage.


Very rarely bacterial infections cause bronchitis, spawned by sources like Mycoplasma pneumonia, Bordetella pertussis, and Chlamydia pneumonia which cause different strains of whooping cough or pertussis, and pneumonia respectively. So, consult a doctor to make sure it isn’t either of these other infections, which will need antibiotics.

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is most commonly caused by the following factors, with viral infections being a precipitating or aggravating factor −

Long-term smoking or passive exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke, or active smokers of cannabis i.e, marijuana are also at risk

Continuous exposure to chemicals, pollution, and other airway irritants in the workplace can cause bronchitis, especially for workers in factories processing chemicals, grain, and textiles.

GERD – Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease – People with a history of GERD, have constant acid reflux/ regurgitation that can sting or irritate your throat and airways.

People with weak or compromised immune systems like infants, young children, and the elderly are more susceptible to contracting bronchitis, as are people with other breathing disorders like asthma or health conditions that cause inflammation.

Chronic bronchitis usually presents with other parallel lung illnesses such as pulmonary emphysema, tuberculosis, sinusitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and infections of the upper respiratory tract.

Symptoms of Acute and Chronic Bronchitis

The symptoms of types of bronchitis often overlap. Let’s take a look at some common symptoms, and then highlight some additional symptoms that appear in chronic bronchitis. They are −

Coughing, that progresses from a dry cough to a “productive” mucus-filled cough or expectoration.

Pain in the chest, back, and muscles

Fever and chills

Body aches and fatigue


Chest discomfort and trouble breathing, sometimes accompanied by wheezing

Signs of a cold such as a sore throat, runny nose, and watery eyes

With chronic bronchitis, you may notice some other additional symptoms such as −

A smoker’s cough which is constant and brings up discolored mucus

Dyspnea i.e. labored breathing which may have frequent crackling sounds or wheezing interspersed in between

Low oxygen levels in your bloodstream cause your finger and toenails, lips, and skin to turn blue

Swelling in your feet

Chronic bronchitis can exacerbate lifestyle disease – for example, it can worsen diabetes and even cause heart failure in severe cases.

If you are diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, your doctor will recommend the right treatment for you. This usually comprises of bronchodilator medications which essentially help you breathe easier by opening up your airways, and cough suppressants i.e., antitussives like Benzonatate or dextromethorphan which are available under various brand names as over-the-counter or prescription drugs. If you also have asthma or comorbidities like COPD you will be prescribed medication to keep these conditions under control. Anti-inflammatory medicines are also usually added to the mix to reduce the swelling from airway aggravation.

With acute bronchitis, self-care is the best care. Warm showers, decongestants to help with stuffiness, hot drinks to soothe your throat, and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines to help with a congested nose and itchy throat are the optimal solutions. These combined with rest should have you back on your feet in no time.

In any case, you should consult a doctor urgently if your symptoms haven’t declined in three weeks, are accompanied by a fever of 100.4 F, and if there is blood in your phlegm.

Diagnosing Bronchitis

There are many means of diagnosing bronchitis. The most common are −

Nasal Swab Cultures

Sputum test of your phlegm to test for viral/bacterial infections

Pulmonary function test in which you blow into a device called a spirometer which measures your lung capacity and tests for asthma/emphysema.

Chest X-Rays to test for pneumonia

Arterial Blood Gas or Pulse Oximetry to test for the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen respectively, in your blood. The former is a blood test while the latter is a small sensor device attached to your fingers/toes


To keep your risk for bronchitis low, take your flu and pneumococcal on schedule, as per your doctor’s instructions. Maintain a healthy diet and good hygiene by wearing a surgical when in polluted environments and washing your hands thoroughly with soap and water, or sanitizer when the former isn’t available.

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Difference Between Adjustment Disorder And Acute Stress Disorder

Adjustment Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder are two conditions that are often misunderstood and confused with each other. While both these disorders occur due to an individual’s inability to cope with stressful situations, they differ in their duration, severity, and symptomology. In this essay, we will explore the key differences between Adjustment Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder.

What is Adjustment Disorder?

Adjustment Disorder is a type of stress-related disorder that occurs when an individual is unable to cope with a stressful event or a change in their life. This condition can occur due to a variety of reasons, such as financial problems, relationship issues, loss of a loved one, or a significant life change like moving to a new city or starting a new job. The symptoms of Adjustment Disorder may include feelings of sadness, anxiety, irritability, and changes in behavior. These symptoms typically appear within three months of the stressful event and can last up to six months.

The types of stressors in a diagnosis of adjustment disorder can be almost anything commonly experienced, such as a divorce or death of a loved one. Also, the stressor can be a single event like moving away for college, or can also be multiple stressors as in marital problems and losing a job at the same time. The emotional and behavioral reactions are diverse and are typically described as maladaptive.

Symptoms may also include depressed mood and anxiety but do not meet criteria for other mental disorders. These symptoms are usually not severe but disproportionate to the severity or intensity of the stressor. Even so, there is still a marked reduction in the person’s functioning. For this diagnosis, symptoms must begin within three months of the onset of the stressor. These symptoms may also last up to six months after the stressor has ceased or if the person has already adapted to the situation.

What is Acute Stress Disorder?

Acute Stress Disorder is a more severe form of stress-related disorder that occurs when an individual experiences a traumatic event. This condition is commonly seen in individuals who have experienced or witnessed a serious accident, natural disaster, or violent crime. The symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder may include re-experiencing the traumatic event through flashbacks, nightmares, or intrusive thoughts, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, and increased anxiety and arousal. These symptoms typically appear within one month of the traumatic event and can last up to four weeks.

Events that cause acute stress disorder are traumatic even to witnesses of such events. These traumatic stressors include war and combat, rape and violence or natural disasters. People who have acute stress disorder usually re-experience the traumatic event in the form of unwanted but intrusive thoughts and memories, dreams, nightmares or flashbacks that cause marked psychological and physiological distress.

Resemblances of any form to the traumatic event also cause distress. A person with acute stress disorder is also understandably averse or overly avoidant of these stimuli. Symptoms also include changes in thinking and mood such as feelings of shame, doubt and anger as well as inaccurate blame of self or others. Another group of symptoms is hyper-arousal which includes hypervigilance, excessive startle response aggression and recklessness.

Differences: Adjustment Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder

The significant difference between the two disorders is the severity of their symptoms. While Adjustment Disorder symptoms are usually mild to moderate and do not significantly impair an individual’s daily functioning, Acute Stress Disorder symptoms can be severe and can disrupt an individual’s ability to perform their daily activities.

Moreover, the treatment approach for Adjustment Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder also differs. Adjustment Disorder is usually treated with psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or supportive therapy, to help individuals develop coping strategies and improve their overall functioning. In contrast, Acute Stress Disorder is treated with a combination of psychotherapy and medication, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications.

The following table highlights the major differences between Adjustment Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder −


Adjustment Disorder

Acute Stress Disorder


Adjustment disorder is the persistent maladaptive psychological reaction to an identifiable stressful event in a person’s life.

Acute stress disorder is severe psychological and physiological reactions to a traumatic event characterized by reliving traumatic events, avoidance, changes in thinking and mood and hyper-arousal.

Type of stressor

The stressors in adjustment disorder can be anything and are commonly experienced such as divorce, death of a loved one, or loss of a job.

The stressors that cause acute stress disorder are usually traumatic as in war, rape and violence, and natural disasters.

Severity of psychological reaction

Psychological reactions in adjustment disorder are considered less severe, diverse reactions, disproportionate to the intensity of the stressor and causing dysfunction.

Psychological and physiological reactions in acute stress disorder are more severe, usually limited to fear and anxiety, recurring and easily triggered.


Symptoms of adjustment disorder include maladaptive emotions and behavior, impairment in social and occupational functioning as well as depressed mood and anxiety.

The symptoms are often severe, recurrent and easily triggered, characterized by intrusive memories, avoidance of related stimuli and changes in mood and arousal that impair daily functioning

Development of symptoms

Symptoms for adjustment disorder occur within three months of the stressful event and may last up to six months after the stressor.

Symptoms of acute stress disorder occur within three days to one month of the traumatic event and persistence of symptoms beyond one month changes diagnosis to post-traumatic stress disorder.


Adjustment disorder is more common among children and adolescents, and equally common among men and women.

Acute stress disorder is more common among women, those with prior trauma and mental disorder as well as those with high neuroticism a high startle response.


In conclusion, while both Adjustment Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder are stress-related disorders, they differ in their duration, severity, symptomatology, and treatment approach.

Adjustment Disorder occurs due to an individual’s inability to cope with a stressful event or a change in their life, and the symptoms last up to six months.

Acute Stress Disorder, on the other hand, occurs due to a traumatic event, and the symptoms last up to four weeks. It is crucial to understand the differences between these two disorders to ensure that individuals receive the appropriate treatment and support they need to manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being.

Asbestosis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Asbestosis pronounced is a chronic lung condition brought on by breathing in asbestos fibers. Breathlessness and lung tissue damage can result from prolonged exposure to these fibers. Mild to severe asbestosis symptoms can occur, and they typically don’t show up for many years after the original exposure.

A heat- and corrosion-resistant natural mineral product is asbestos. In the past, it was widely utilized in materials for floor tiles, cement, and insulation.

Before the federal government began to regulate the use of asbestos and asbestos-containing goods in the 1970s, the majority of persons who have asbestosis contracted it while working. Today, handling of it is under stringent regulation. If you abide by your employer’s safety regulations, you have a very minimal chance of developing asbestosis. The management of asbestos materials should only be done by certified and educated personnel. The goal of treatment is to reduce your symptoms.

Asbestosis: Causes

Some of the airborne fibers from prolonged exposure to high quantities of asbestos dust may lodge in your alveoli, the small sacs in your lungs where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in your blood. The irritation and scarring caused by the asbestos fibers make the lung tissue inflexible. Breathing becomes challenging as a result.

Scarring of lung tissue increases as asbestosis worsens. Your lung tissue eventually stiffens to the point that it is unable to contract and expand correctly.

Asbestosis: Symptoms

In most cases, it takes 10–40 years after the initial exposure to asbestos before the symptoms of long-term exposure become apparent. The degree of symptoms might vary.

Some symptoms and indicators of asbestosis include −

Breathing difficulty

A continuous, dry cough

Chest discomfort or stiffness

When you breathe in, your lungs make dry and cracking noises.

Wider and rounder-than-normal finger and toe tips (clubbing)

Most persons with asbestosis today were exposed decades ago when there were reliable safeguards against occupational exposure to asbestos fibers.

If you experience the aforementioned symptoms and believe you may have previously been exposed to asbestos, consult your doctor.

Asbestosis: Risk Factors

The greatest risk of developing asbestosis is among those who worked in the mining, milling, manufacturing, installation, or removal of asbestos goods before the late 1970s. Examples comprise −

Aeronautical and automotive mechanics

Asbestos miners

Operator of boilers

Employees in the building industry


Railroad personnel

Workers in mills and refineries

Shipyard personnel

Older buildings’ steam pipes’ asbestos insulation is being removed by workers.

The quantity and length of asbestos exposure are typically connected to the risk of asbestosis and the amount of lung damage.

Household members of exposed workers may be exposed secondhand because asbestos fibers can be transported home on garments. Asbestos fibers that are dispersed into the air may also be exposed to people who live close to mines.

Asbestosis: Diagnosis

A thorough medical history, exposure history, and a chest X-ray or CT scan that reveals lung tissue scarring is often used to diagnose asbestosis. Your doctor can assess the severity of your asbestosis and the health of your lungs using this information together with breathing tests.

If you have a history of asbestos exposure and you notice that your shortness of breath is getting worse, you should talk to your primary care physician about the likelihood of asbestosis. He or she will probably suggest that you visit a physician who focuses on lung conditions (pulmonologist).

Your doctor will inquire about your breathing during the appointment, both while you’re at rest and when you’re exercising. To ascertain the extent of your asbestos exposure, your doctor will also inquire in-depth about your employment history.

Your symptoms and when they first appeared

The remedies used in the past to treat the symptoms and how they worked

Your complete career’s worth of work, the amount of time you spent at each employment, and the type of work you did.

The goods you came into touch with at work and whether you wore safety gear

Cigarette history

X-rays or CT scans from the chest as well as any previous medical records

Your doctor will examine your physical and listen to your lungs to establish whether or not the sounds are normal.

The following tests may then be prescribed by your doctor −

Lung function test


CT scan of the chest

Imaging Exams

With these exams, your lungs are visualized −

CT scan for computerized tomography − Cross-sectional pictures of the bones and soft tissues within your body are created by combining a number of X-ray views acquired from various angles during a CT scan. These scans often offer more information and may be able to identify asbestosis early on, even before it manifests on a chest X-ray.

Testing for pulmonary function − Your lungs’ efficiency is assessed with pulmonary function testing. These exams check your lungs’ capacity to store air as well as airflow.

Asbestosis: Treatment

Asbestos damage cannot be repaired, however, there are actions that may be taken to lessen symptoms and reduce the disease’s course. Avoiding more asbestos exposure as well as other irritants like cigarette smoke will help prevent the illness from worsening.

To treat asbestosis, your doctor could suggest the following −

Kicking the habit as soon as you can. Smoking can exacerbate the harm caused by asbestos and quicken the disease’s course. The American Lung Association provides a variety of smoking cessation programs to provide the help smokers who are attempting to stop require.

You could be given oxygen as a prescription to assist you to breathe in more air. Through a tube that goes into the nostrils or with the use of a mask, oxygen is delivered from a tank to the user. Study up on oxygen treatment.

An exercise program called “pulmonary rehabilitation” was created to support all patients with chronic lung problems in maintaining their ideal levels of activity.

Asbestosis: Prevention

The best way to avoid asbestosis is to limit your exposure to asbestos. Federal law mandates that employers in construction and other businesses that operate with asbestos materials take extra precautions.

Many houses, schools, and other structures constructed before to the 1970s include asbestos-containing materials like pipes and floor tiles. In general, as long as the asbestos remains contained and unaltered, there is little risk of exposure. There is a risk of asbestos fibers being discharged into the air and inhaled when asbestos-containing products are broken. Always have certified and skilled asbestos specialists examine, fix, or remove your asbestoscontaining goods.


Asbestos is one of the most common avoidable hazards to the human lung. Although its association with a number of malignant and non-malignant lung diseases has been long ago established, novel aspects regarding the pathogenesis of these disorders are still coming to light.

Crohn’s Disease Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Crohn’s Disease is a long-term illness with no known specific cause in which there is a transmural inflammatory process of the bowel that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. In most cases, the small bowel, particularly the terminal ileum is involved. Males and females are equally affected. The disease usually begins at the age of 15 to 30yrs.

Depending on the part involved, Crohn’s disease is classified into various types such as Ileocolic Crohn’s disease which affects both the ileum and the large intestine, Crohn’s ileitis which affects the ileum only and Crohn’s colitis which affects the large intestine.

The patient with Crohn’s disease presents with pain in the abdomen, loose stools, flatulence, bloating, perianal discomfort, and other systemic and extraintestinal symptoms. The exact cause of the disease is unknown but genetic and environmental factors have been known to result in this condition.

Diagnosis of Crohn’s disease requires various investigations. A colonoscopy is 70% effective in diagnosing the disease via direct visualization of the colon and the terminal ileum. Capsule endoscopy helps in endoscopic diagnosis. 30% of Crohn’s disease involves only the ileum, cannulation of the terminal ileum is required in making the diagnosis.

Other investigations like blood tests, serum levels of albumin, magnesium, zinc, and selenium, and acute phase protein measurements may correlate with disease activity. Treating this condition involves medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery in required cases.

Crohn’s Disease: Causes

Various genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of Crohn’s disease The following are the important causes of developing Crohn’s disease −

It is suggested to occur because of the autoimmune response in which the body thinks the good bacteria of the digestive tract as foreign bodies initiating an immune response against it leading to inflammation of the bowel

Genetics plays an important role; it is known to run in families. Mutations in certain genes, such as NOD2 and ATG16L1, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn’s disease.

Smoking has been known to increase the risk of development of the disease thrice compared to normal. Other environmental factors like stress and diet also have been known to influence its development

Imbalance in the microorganisms that live in the digestive tract, due to various causes also known to the development of Crohn’s disease.

Crohn’s Disease: Symptoms

The patient with Crohn’s disease presents with intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms that vary from person to person depending on the severity. It mainly presents with the following symptoms −

Intestinal symptoms include −

The patient mainly presents with pain in the abdomen usually more after eating and can be associated with cramps in the abdomen

Nausea and vomiting

Low-grade fever

Loose stools and sometimes blood can be present in the blood

Bloating and flatulence

Fatigue or weakness

Non-intestinal symptoms include −

Up to 30% of children with Crohn’s disease present with retardation of growth.

Among older people, Crohn’s disease presents with weight loss due to decreased food intake. in severe conditions, the patients have malabsorption of carbohydrates or lipids, which can further increase weight loss.

As the condition increases the risk of blood clots; painful swelling of the lower legs can develop indicating deep venous thrombosis.

Difficult breathing may be present as a result of pulmonary embolism.

Some patients may present with Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, a condition in which the immune system attacks the red blood cells.

Skin problems, such as rashes and ulcers, particularly around the anus can be present

Crohn’s Disease: Risk Factors

Several factors play an important role in the development of Crohn’s disease which includes −

Age − The onset of the disease more commonly occurs between 15 to 30yrs of the age group

Family history − The person with a family history of Crohn’s disease is at increased risk.

Smoking increases the risk thrice than the normal people

Low fiber diet can also influence its development

Disturbance of the normal gut flora due to various causes increase the risk

Crohn’s Disease: Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Crohn’s disease is mainly done based on clinical presentation, investigations and some of the tests may be required to look for complications caused by the disease which include −

A colonoscopy is more effective in diagnosing the disease by direct visualization of the colon and the terminal ileum.

Capsule endoscopy helps in endoscopic diagnosis.

In some patients Crohn’s disease involves only the ileum, cannulation of the terminal ileum is required in making the diagnosis.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and C-reactive protein measurements help to check the degree of inflammation.

Testing for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) has been evaluated to identify inflammation of the intestine.

A barium X-ray is where barium sulfate suspension is ingested and fluoroscopic images of the bowel are taken to check inflammation and narrowing of the small bowel. This helps in Identifying anatomical abnormalities when strictures of the colon are too small for a colonoscope to pass through, or in the detection of colonic fistulae.

Crohn’s Disease: Treatment Conservative Treatment

Conservative treatment includes −

Antibiotics are prescribed to reduce inflammation

5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is used for the long term in these patients

Immunomodulators such as azathioprine, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, infliximab, and adalimumab

Hydrocortisone should be used in severe attacks of Crohn’s disease.

Lifestyle modifications include −

Dietary modifications such as proper hydration and smoking cessation reduce symptoms.

Eating a healthy balanced diet with and eating small meals frequently instead of big meals.

Regular exercise and take enough sleep

Identifying foods that trigger symptoms and avoiding them should be done

Surgical Treatment

The surgery is required in case of obstructions, fistulas, and abscesses, or if the disease does not respond to drugs

Crohn’s Disease: Prevention

Some of the measures that can help to prevent Crohn’s disease include −

Intake of plenty of liquids

Avoid smoking


Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory disease that affects the gastrointestinal system. The exact cause of Crohn’s disease is not known. However, genetics and environmental factors are known to influence its occurrence. The patient mainly presents with pain abdomen, loose motion, low-grade fever, nausea, weight loss, joint pain, and skin problems.

The condition is mainly diagnosed by endoscopy and colonoscopy. When strictures of the colon are too small for a colonoscope to pass through barium, X-ray is done. Other investigations like CBC with ESR, CRP, serum levels of albumin, magnesium, zinc, and selenium, and testing for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies should be done.

Treatment of Crohn’s disease involves antibiotics, steroids, immunosuppressants, lifestyle modifications, and surgery may be required in severe cases.

Baby Acne Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Baby acne is a typical, transient skin condition that results in acne outbreaks on your baby’s chest or face. Baby acne symptoms include pimples, little lumps, or pustules on your baby’s skin, much like adult acne symptoms do. The typical duration is from a few days to a few weeks. Newborn acne, neonatal acne, or neonatal cephalic pustulosis are the other names for infant acne.

What Distinguishes Infantile Acne and Acne in Babies?

Visit a doctor if your child develops acne after the age of two months. Infantile acne could take longer to go away.

Baby Acne: Causes

It is uncertain what specifically causes infant acne. Clogged pores are frequently the cause of acne. A pimple can form when your pores get clogged.

The hormonal changes that your infant experiences throughout pregnancy or the first few weeks of life are thought to be the cause of baby acne, according to medical professionals. The placenta’s hormones can alter how much sebum your unborn child’s skin generates. Your baby’s skin’s sebaceous glands produce sebum, an oily material, to protect their skin and hair. Acne can result from pores being clogged with sebum.

Babies skin is further delicate after they are born. Anything left on their skin for too long, especially if they have food, vomit, or drool residue, may cause their skin to react unfavorably.

Your baby’s hormones might be impacted by the hormones in breast milk (chest milk) from the birthing parent, which could result in acne. Baby acne is a skin ailment that only lasts a short time and usually goes away on its own. You shouldn’t let this change how you feed your infant. As your infant grows and their body acclimates to its new surroundings, the baby’s acne will go away. Speak with your healthcare professional if you have any concerns about how your breast milk (chest milk) will impact your baby’s skin.

When your kid is first born, giving them kisses on the cheeks won’t make them break out in pimples. Baby acne is typically brought on by hormonal fluctuations that temporarily block their pores.

Baby Acne: Symptoms

Baby acne can appear on your baby’s skin before they become two months old or be present from birth. It might resemble minor teenage or adult acne in appearance. Baby acne characteristics include −

Small, swollen, red to purple lumps (papules).

Pus-filled bumps encircled by a dark brown or reddish-purple ring (pustules).

On your child’s face, chest, and back, baby acne is typical. It can specifically impact your baby’s −







Phases of Infant Acne

Baby acne can develop gradually or unexpectedly. Before becoming elevated pimples, pimples on their skin might begin as little, discolored spots. The size of the pimples also decreases as the inflammation diminishes. The zits are transient and often disappear in a few days to a few weeks. Your baby’s skin won’t have any blemishes when the pimples go.

Risk Factors

The major risk factors include −

Irritants on dry skin


Illness from sweating

Baby Acne: Diagnosis

Your baby’s skin can be examined by a medical professional to diagnose infant acne. This condition can be diagnosed without testing. You don’t need a diagnosis from a healthcare professional for this benign ailment unless you’re worried about how the acne is impacting your baby’s skin or if they exhibit further symptoms.

Baby Acne: Treatment

Baby acne is a transient ailment that clears up on its own. Because every baby’s skin is unique, the following treatments could be suggested by their healthcare provider −

A topical antifungal cream similar to ketoconazole.

A topical steroid of modest potency, similar to hydrocortisone.

These can be used on your baby’s skin in the same way that lotion or moisturizer would. By your doctor’s recommendations, apply these drugs to your baby’s skin as directed.

Before applying any products to your baby’s acne, see your baby’s doctor. Home treatments occasionally have the potential to irritate your baby’s tender skin.

By caring for your newborn’s skin, you may assist your baby’s acne in clearing up. This could comprise −

Use warm water to gently wash your baby’s skin. Do not scrub their skin. Next, pat the skin of your infant dry.

Avoid using lotions, oils, or other things that could clog your baby’s pores to their skin.

Any food crumbs or vomit that get up on your baby’s skin should be cleaned up very away.

After a few weeks, if your baby’s acne doesn’t clear up or if it becomes worse, call their doctor.

Baby acne may go away on its own in a matter of days to weeks. If a doctor suggests a topical drug, the recovery time can be shorter. Baby acne can occasionally take up to a month to go away. Speak with your baby’s healthcare professional if the acne isn’t going away.

Baby Acne: Prevention

There is no way to stop infant acne. Your newborn’s acne can be cleared up by −

Gently bathes their skin with warm water at least once every day.

After your baby has completed feeding, wipe off any food remnants from their face.

Avoid applying oily skincare items to your baby’s skin.

Not popping or squeezing acne on your child’s skin.

Every day, wash your baby’s face. Every day, use warm water to wash your baby’s face. Use water with a gentle, moisturizing face soap one day and plain water the next.

Gently pat dry your infant’s face. To dry your baby’s skin, pat it.

Do not apply oils, ointments, or lotions. These items will probably worsen infant acne.


A harmless skin ailment called baby acne will go away on its own. There are no problems from the illness, and it doesn’t call for medical attention. Your baby’s spots can take a few weeks to clear up. Scarring is unlikely to occur, and after the acne has cleared up, your baby’s skin will be smooth.

The skin on your infant should not be scrubbed as this might irritate it. Make sure that greasy skincare items like lotions don’t make your baby’s acne worse. Just gently wash your baby’s skin with warm water, and then pat their skin dry. Your baby’s skin will entirely clean up in a matter of days to weeks.

Balance Problems Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

You may have dizziness, a whirling sensation in the room, shakiness, or light-headedness due to balance issues. You can experience dizziness or a sense of impending doom. Whether you’re seated, standing, or lying down, these emotions may strike.

For you to have proper balance, several physiological systems, including your muscles, bones, joints, eyes, the balancing organ in your inner ear, nerves, your heart, and your blood vessels, must function regularly. Balance issues can occur when these mechanisms aren’t working properly.

Balance issues can result from a variety of medical illnesses. However, abnormalities with the balance organ in your inner ear are what cause the majority of balance disorders (vestibular system).

Balance Problems: Causes

Many different circumstances might lead to balance issues. The exact indication or symptom is typically connected to the cause of balance issues.

The Feeling of Rotation or Motion (Vertigo)

Several disorders are connected to vertigo, including −

Harmless recurrent positional vertigo (BPPV) − BPPV happens when calcium crystals in your inner ear, which aid in maintaining your balance, get dislodged and travel outside of their usual locations. The most typical cause of vertigo in adults is BPPV. When turning in bed or leaning your head back to gaze up, you could feel as though you are spinning.

The vestibular nerve − This inflammatory condition, which is most likely brought on by a virus, can harm the nerves in your inner ear’s balancing system. The symptoms, which frequently include nausea and difficulty walking, are severe and persistent. The symptoms may last for many days before gradually getting better on their own. It is the second most prevalent condition in adults after BPPV.

Persistent dizziness with postural perception − Other kinds of vertigo usually coexist with this disease. Unsteadiness or a sense of motion in your head are symptoms. When you read, watch items move, or are in a visually demanding location, like a mall, symptoms frequently get worse. The third most prevalent condition in adults is this one.

Meniere’s condition − Meniere’s illness can result in variable hearing loss, buzzing, ringing, or a fullness in the ear in addition to sudden and severe vertigo. Meniere’s illness has an unknown primary etiology. Meniere’s disease is an uncommon condition that mainly affects adults between the ages of 20 and 40.

Migraine − Migraines can cause vestibular migraines, which are characterized by vertigo and sensitivity to motion. Dizziness is frequently brought on by migraines.

Sound-related neuroma − This benign, slow-growing tumor that doesn’t cause cancer grows on a nerve that affects your hearing and balance. Dizziness and balance issues are possible, although hearing loss and ringing in the ears are the most typical symptoms. An uncommon condition is an acoustic neuroma.

Ramsay Hunt disease − This disorder, also known as herpes zoster oticus, happens when an infection that resembles shingles affects the facial, auditory, and vestibular nerves close to one of your ears. Vertigo, ear discomfort, face numbness, and hearing loss might be present.

Head trauma − Damage to your head, such as a concussion, may cause vertigo.

Feeling dizzy on rides at an amusement park, in a vehicle, a boat, or an airplane, you could feel lightheaded. People with migraines frequently experience motion sickness. Being lightheaded may be related to −

Orthostatic hypotension with hemodynamic (postural hypotension) − Some persons may have a considerable drop in blood pressure while standing or sitting up too rapidly, leaving them dizzy or faint.

The cardiovascular system − Blood flow can be decreased by abnormal cardiac rhythms (heart arrhythmia), constricted or clogged blood arteries, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, thickening heart muscle, or a drop in blood volume, which can result in dizziness or fainting.

Balance Problems: Symptoms

The major symptoms include −

Feeling of rotation or motion (vertigo)

Experiencing dizziness or faintness (presyncope)

Being off-balance or unsteady

Falling or feeling as though you could

Experiencing vertigo or a floating sensation

Alterations in vision, such as blurriness


Balance Problems: Risk Factors

The major risk factors include −

Your ears might be infected.

Internal ear issues.

Brain damage

Blood circulation problems.

Certain medicines.

Your brain’s chemical equilibrium is off.

Reduced blood pressure

Elevated blood pressure

Balance Problems: Diagnosis

To diagnose balance problems, your doctor may suggest the following tests −

Hearing tests − Balance issues are commonly linked to hearing difficulties.

Test for posturography − You attempt to maintain your balance on a moving platform while wearing a safety harness. A posturography exam reveals the components of your balance system that you use the most frequently.

Both electro- and videonystagmography − Both assessments capture eye movements, which are important for balance and vestibular health. Electrodes are used in electronystagmography to capture eye movements. Small cameras are used in videonystagmography to capture eye movements.

Imaging exams − If you think your balance issues may be related to underlying medical illnesses, MRI and CT scans can help rule them out.

Tests for heart rate and blood pressure − To establish whether you have severe decreases in blood pressure, your blood pressure may be measured while you are seated and again after standing for two to three minutes. To assist identify whether a heart problem is causing your symptoms, your heart rate may be measured while you are standing.

Balance Problems: Treatment

Treatments of this disorder include the following options −

Exercises to retrain your balance (vestibular rehabilitation) − Balance-related therapists create a personalized regimen of exercises and balance retraining. You can correct for imbalance, adjust to decreased balance, and sustain physical activity with the aid of therapy. Your therapist can suggest a balancing aid, such as a cane, as well as measures to lower your risk of falls at home to prevent falls.

Positioning techniques − A therapy process called “canalith repositioning” may be used if you have BPPV to remove particles from your inner ear and place them in another portion of your ear. Your head must be moved about throughout the treatment.

Medications − You may be given drugs to manage nausea and dizziness if your vertigo is severe and lasts for hours or days.

Balance Problems: Prevention

The majority of balance issues are hard to avoid. You can, however, take care of those that are connected to blood pressure problems. Increase your water intake and abstain from alcohol to prevent low blood pressure. Regular exercise, lowering your salt intake, and keeping a healthy weight can all help you avoid high blood pressure.


The first step to getting well is understanding the cause of your balance difficulties. Here are some ideas to assist you to deal with your balance problems −

Keep your weight at a healthy level.

Build up your core. Your core, which consists of the muscles in your middle or belly, aids in stabilizing your entire frame.

Make your surroundings “fall-proof.” Your chance of falling rises if you have balance concerns. Examine the places where you frequently move and take out anything that can trip you, such as carpets and electrical cords.

Give it some time. Give yourself enough time to get up if you have trouble with your equilibrium. Take it gradually when you stand up if you feel wobbly.

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