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Introduction to Prince2 Process

Project in Controlled Environment is termed as PRINCE2. This is one of the leading project management methods in the United Kingdom used by both the private and public sectors. In this topic, we are going to learn about the PRINCE2 Process.

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As the name says, PRINCE2 Processes is a process-based project management methodology. This methodology of development is made to control the commencement, progression, and termination of projects. PRINCE2 process focuses mainly on three constraints time, cost, and quality. PRINCE2 methodology communicates with the developing team members and clearly defines the roles and responsibilities to every team member; its prime focus is on the product that the project was established to deliver.

Principles of PRINCE2 Process

PRINCE2 process works on seven principles. And these principles can be applied to all projects irrespective of language, geography, and culture.

Continued business

Manage by stages

Focus on products

Tailor to suit the project

Manage by exception

Learn from experience

Defined roles and responsibilities

1. Continued business justification

The justification here is termed as the reason behind starting the project, and this justification continues and remains valid throughout the project cycle. The requirements from the project are studied deeply at the very initial stage, and after discussions, the business case is made ready as an outline form; it is redefined in detail during the initial stage itself. The business case is updated after finishing every working stage so it can reflect an updated forecast for time, cost, benefits, and risks. Finally, the business case is reviewed at the end of every completion stage or management stage to check whether to continue with the project or not.

2. Manage by stages 3. Focus on products

PRINCE2 process indulges an output-oriented approach; the project and end results are an integral part of defining the product, quality, and other important criteria for successful outcomes. The description of the product is one of the important points during development; it should contain the purpose, composition, derivation, format, presentation, development skills required, quality criteria, quality tolerance, quality method, quality skills, and quality responsibility.

4. Tailor to suit the project environment

In this process, the project can be tailored and scaled. If the PRINCE2 process is used for the needs of the projects, it can successfully work for the project but may not work well if used dogmatically.

5. Manage by exceptions 6. Learn from the experience

The team who have worked previously should learn from their previous projects about good and bad during the project’s development. For this purpose, the lesson log is kept updated.

7. Defined roles and responsibilities

This is one of the very important factors of a win-win situation that every team member included in the development of the project should know what they and others are doing; they should be aware of who are the decision-makers.

Themes of PRINCE2

PRINCE2 process has seven themes on which it put focus during project development. The themes provide insight into how the project should be managed. Themes can let managers understand how to apply the projects correctly; these themes are set up at the starting of the project and continue throughout the project development. the status of the project can be kept on track by using the themes of the PRINCE2 process.

Business case: This theme is for the continued business justification principle. This theme works when the decision is about project identity, which says whether a project is worthwhile and achievable, it provides full knowledge of the project.

Organization: This theme is related to the roles and responsibilities principal of the PRINCE2 process. This theme requires the manager to keep his team’s record with the roles and responsibilities assigned to everyone for the project development.

Quality: This is for the focus on product principles. Quality is the prime requirement from the product, to keep this assured, the quality should be defined at the beginning of a project; also, keeping the quality work on track throughout could help.

Plans: The planning for completing a project is done at the starting, which defines how the target will be achieved. Its prime focus is on products, timescale, cost, quality, and benefits from the project.

Risk: This theme is important for identifying, assessing, and controlling uncertain events during the project development. The risk log is maintained to keep the information; the risks are denoted threats and opportunities, negative risks are threats, and positive risks are opportunities.

Change: This theme is working when the user makes the change request during the project; it also works when any unexpected issue arises. The idea is to agree on changes and apply them before they are executed.

Progress: This is all about tracking the project. The progress theme allows managers to check and control where they are relative to the plan. The chances are higher that the project can go off track without keeping track; the nether manager will know where the project has gone till that time.

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This is a guide to the PRINCE2 Process. Here we discuss the basic concept, themes, and principles of the Prince2 process, respectively. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

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7 Principles Of Software Testing With Examples

7 Principles of Software Testing

Testing shows presence of defects

Exhaustive testing is not possible

Early testing

Defect clustering

Pesticide paradox

Testing is context dependent

Absence of errors fallacy

This tutorial introduces the seven basic Software Testing Principles that every Software tester and QA professional should know.

Let’s learn the testing principles with the following video example–


It is important that you achieve optimum test results while conducting software testing without deviating from the goal. But how you determine that you are following the right strategy for testing? For that, you need to stick to some basic testing principles. Here are the common seven testing principles that are widely practiced in the software industry.

To understand this, consider a scenario where you are moving a file from folder A to Folder B.

Think of all the possible ways you can test this.

Apart from the usual scenarios, you can also test the following conditions

Trying to move the file when it is Open

You do not have the security rights to paste the file in Folder B

Folder B is on a shared drive and storage capacity is full.

Folder B already has a file with the same name, in fact, the list is endless

Or suppose you have 15 input fields to test, each having 5 possible values, the number of combinations to be tested would be 5^15

Here are the 7 Principles: 1) Exhaustive testing is not possible

Yes! Exhaustive testing is not possible. Instead, we need the optimal amount of testing based on the risk assessment of the application.

And the million dollar question is, how do you determine this risk?

To answer this let’s do an exercise

In your opinion, Which operation is most likely to cause your Operating system to fail?

I am sure most of you would have guessed, Opening 10 different application all at the same time.

So if you were testing this Operating system, you would realize that defects are likely to be found in multi-tasking activity and need to be tested thoroughly which brings us to our next principle Defect Clustering

2) Defect Clustering

Defect Clustering which states that a small number of modules contain most of the defects detected. This is the application of the Pareto Principle to software testing: approximately 80% of the problems are found in 20% of the modules.

By experience, you can identify such risky modules. But this approach has its own problems

If the same tests are repeated over and over again, eventually the same test cases will no longer find new bugs.

3) Pesticide Paradox

Repetitive use of the same pesticide mix to eradicate insects during farming will over time lead to the insects developing resistance to the pesticide Thereby ineffective of pesticides on insects. The same applies to software testing. If the same set of repetitive tests are conducted, the method will be useless for discovering new defects.

To overcome this, the test cases need to be regularly reviewed & revised, adding new & different test cases to help find more defects.

Testers cannot simply depend on existing test techniques. He must look out continually to improve the existing methods to make testing more effective. But even after all this sweat & hard work in testing, you can never claim your product is bug-free. To drive home this point, let’s see this video of the public launch of Windows 98

4) Testing shows a presence of defects

Hence, testing principle states that – Testing talks about the presence of defects and don’t talk about the absence of defects. i.e. Software Testing reduces the probability of undiscovered defects remaining in the software but even if no defects are found, it is not a proof of correctness.

But what if, you work extra hard, taking all precautions & make your software product 99% bug-free. And the software does not meet the needs & requirements of the clients.

5) Absence of Error – fallacy

It is possible that software which is 99% bug-free is still unusable. This can be the case if the system is tested thoroughly for the wrong requirement. Software testing is not mere finding defects, but also to check that software addresses the business needs. The absence of Error is a Fallacy i.e. Finding and fixing defects does not help if the system build is unusable and does not fulfill the user’s needs & requirements.

To solve this problem, the next principle of testing states that Early Testing

6) Early Testing

7) Testing is context dependent

Testing is context dependent which basically means that the way you test an e-commerce site will be different from the way you test a commercial off the shelf application. All the developed software’s are not identical. You might use a different approach, methodologies, techniques, and types of testing depending upon the application type. For instance testing, any POS system at a retail store will be different than testing an ATM machine.

Myth: “Principles are just for reference. I will not use them in practice .”

This is so very untrue. Test Principles will help you create an effective Test Strategy and draft error catching test cases.

But learning testing principles is just like learning to drive for the first time.

Initially, while you learn to drive, you pay attention to each and everything like gear shifts, speed, clutch handling, etc. But with experience, you just focus on driving the rest comes naturally. Such that you even hold conversations with other passengers in the car.

Same is true for testing principles. Experienced testers have internalized these principles to a level that they apply them even without thinking. Hence the myth that the principles are not used in practice is simply not true.

Responsible Ai: Essential Principles To Accelerate Innovation

Analytics Insight describes the essential principles of Responsible AI to accelerate innovation

Every organization needs to adopt Responsible AI to accelerate innovation with AI models efficiently and effectively to gain a competitive edge in the global market. Responsible AI is known as a governance framework for an organization to follow and address multiple challenges related to Artificial Intelligence. It helps to ensure that AI models have human-centered programs incorporated with machine learning algorithms. Responsible AI is one of the major emerging areas of Artificial Intelligence governance while covering ethics and legal concerns. Fairness: All AI models must treat all kinds of people from different races and castes fairly without any biases Reliability and Safety: AI models should generate reliable insights and reports while following all kinds of safety precautions for an organization Privacy and Security: AI models should have utmost security against cyberattacks and respect the privacy of organizations in multiple situations Inclusiveness: AI models should know how to include people and engage everyone to provide better customer engagement in the competitive market Transparency: AI models should be transparent in nature for employees and stakeholders to understand the whole system of transforming real-time data into insights and machine learning algorithms completely Accountability: Developers and researchers should be accountable for the entire system of AI models and machine learning algorithms Innovations with AI have influenced all organizations to make smart decisions by understanding consumer behavior through structured, unstructured, and semi-structured real-time data. Organizations are also responsible for managing the potential ethical and socio-technical concerns of Artificial Intelligence. The principles of Responsible AI are focused on the development of Artificial Intelligence and responsibly share research, tools, large datasets, and many other resources with the global society. Responsible AI helps in accelerating innovation with AI by reducing some risks that can transform the output of an AI model. Thus, principles of Responsible AI can be followed in these ways: • Every step of developing the AI model should be recorded to maintain transparency and fairness to reduce the risk of altercation in the future • Enormous volumes of real-time complex data must not be biased against anyone or any object to generate reliable reports that are safe to use • All kinds of analytic models can be adapted to different environments while maintaining the privacy and security principle • Researchers and developers who are deploying Artificial Intelligence should keep in mind that they are accountable for the potential impacts of AI models • Must ensure that real-time data is explainable and can be interpreted to employees and stakeholders for clearing their doubts and concerns It is now well-known that Responsible AI is essential and good for organizations to boost efficiency and complete business missions within a short period of time. If an organization establishes itself as a business that promotes ethical practices, it will gain a competitive edge in the market with customer loyalty and engagement. It also helps organizations to expand their client base while developing inclusive products and services with the principle of inclusiveness. The principles of Responsible AI act as guidance in monitoring AI model applications and introducing regulations through continuous auditing processes.

Elements And Principles Of Design: Definition And Meaning

The Elements of Design are essentially building blocks that the designer uses to create effects, define and segment spaces, convey emotions or states of being, and/or convey ideas. Line, value, shape, colour, and texture are a few of these in particular. As opposed to this, the Principles of Design are broad ideas and phenomena that come about as a result of the efficient use and manipulation of the aforementioned Design Elements. The following are just a few of these: emphasis, balance, and alignment; contrast; repetition; proportion; movement; harmony; form; depth; etc. Basically, the fundamental parts used to create a design are known as the “elements of design.” The components are the instruments that will aid you in creating your design. There are eight components to the design. In contrast, the design principles are the guidelines you should adhere to for the best results. You should take into account each concept throughout their approach to create a fantastic design.

The elements and principles of design can be broadly referred to, with a few small adjustments depending on the design discipline being discussed. Elements and principles are the two basic categories that guide the creation of designs. In the case of baking a cake, for example, elements are comparable to the necessary materials. (Bread, eggs, sugar, etc.) Without a particular blend of these components, a cake cannot be a cake. How these components are employed is determined by principles? If we apply the cake analogy, it might be the flavour you use, the way the elements are put together, or the preparation of the various ingredients.

What are the design principles?

To make sure a project looks good and provides the right visual experience, designers must abide by the principles of design. Design principles can make whatever you’re creating more pleasant to look at in addition to enhancing the composition’s or page’s aesthetic appeal. For example, concepts like “balance” and “white space” make sure the eye isn’t overloaded and becomes visually fatigued. Instead, variety and emphasis help to direct the viewer’s focus in the right directions. Although the various design principles we’ll discuss below are frequently referred to separately by designers, they typically function as a cohesive whole. To produce a particular effect, each principle or “element” complements, strengthens, and adds to the others.


The given table describes the major terminologies used to define principles of design

Term Description


Pattern are a regular arrangement of elements (shapes, lines, colors) or motifs that are alternated or repeated.


The contrasting of various design elements (such as rough and smooth textures, dark and light values, etc.) in order to draw attention to their differences or to establish a focal point.


One component of an artwork is given extra consideration or importance. The use of placement, contrast, color, size, and repetition can all be used to create emphasis. Connects to the focal point.


When design elements are arranged symmetrically or asymmetrically to give the impression of equal weight or importance, a sense of balance is produced.

Proportion/ Scale

The link between items in terms of their dimensions, numbers, and other factors. comprising the connection between a whole’s component pieces.


The placement of elements to convey to the observer that the piece’s various components work together to create a cohesive whole.

Rhythm/ Movement

Using repeating themes to guide the viewer’s eye around the artwork Random, regular, alternating, progressive, and flowing are the five different types of rhythm. The arrangement of the pieces to draw attention to the focal point. For instance, movement can be controlled using shape, color, and edges.

What is the Meaning of Elements of Design?

The fundamental components that designers use to construct their designs are known as “design elements.” The parts, the components that can be isolated and defined in any visual design, are the work’s structure, the elements that can be arranged and used as a part of any composition. Regardless of talent, taste, or style, design elements are present and have an impact on how a piece of work is interpreted, executed, and used. In one way or another, everything has a form. Form is not the same as form’s substance when we discuss it. Line, colour, shape, form, value, space, and texture are the primary elements. If you have a firm understanding of these concepts, you can comprehend design elements and others that may appear. It will be possible to examine a design in detail and learn about the creative process.


The given table illustrates the major terms used to define the elements of design

Term Description


Vertical, horizontal, and diagonal angular, dotted, fractured, straight hefty, thin


Two-dimensional and flat Geometric (square, circle, oval, triangle) (square, circle, oval, triangle) Organic (all other shapes) (all other shapes)


3D (three dimensional) (three dimensional) Geometric (cube, sphere, cone) (cube, sphere, cone) Organic (all other forms such as: people, animals, tables, chairs, etc.) (all other forms such as: people, animals, tables, chairs, etc.)


Relates to the light’s wavelengths refers to the names of hue, value (lightness/darkness), intensity (amount of pigment saturated), and temperature (warm and cool) relates to shade, tone, and tint


The way a surface feels, looks, is thick, or is sticky (for example: smooth, rough, silky, furry)


The region surrounding, enclosing, or separating images or portions of images has to do with perspective Positivity and opacity


There is a great deal of ambiguity surrounding the elements and principles of design. While most people are aware of the elements and principles, they frequently misunderstand which belongs in which category and—more importantly—the distinction between the two. These are the foundational elements of both fine and graphic design, and without a firm knowledge of them, your creation may come apart unexpectedly. The information that follows should prove to be instructive and a good way to review the fundamentals, whether you’re a novice or seasoned designer or a business owner interested in learning more about the process. To simply state it, the elements of design are the parts that make up your artwork, but the principles of design are the “blueprints,” “laws,” “philosophies,” etc. that direct design and specify how those parts should behave.

7 Reasons To Migrate To Windows 7

If you’re straddling the fence, what’s your reason for not upgrading to Windows 7? Many IT managers wait for the first service pack before deploying an OS upgrade; others update the operating system as part of a hardware refresh.

Microsoft’s enterprise desktop operating system has a long-term pattern of OS upgrades: Windows 7 is the long-term successor to Windows XP, just as XP was the clear successor to NT 4.0.

Each of these was the golden child of the Microsoft machine, blessed with prime market positioning, lack of extreme overhauls and sporting a high level of polish. As the latest entrant, Windows 7 is here to stay and adoption rates are already very high.

Once you accept that Windows 7 is coming to your environment sometime over the next several years then the question truly becomes: “What are you waiting for?” The sooner that you get Windows 7 in place, the sooner you can make the transition and the sooner you can start reaping the benefits of the latest technologies. Most shops are moving from XP to 7 today.

One of the biggest complaints of users who switched to Vista from XP was a lack of performance. Windows 7 addresses this very well. It offers better performance than Vista and has lower minimum requirements, allowing it be used in the Netbook realm that was previously reserved for Windows XP.

Having a Windows operating system that actually outperforms its predecessor on the same hardware is a major feat. Traditionally an OS was only expected to be comparable or faster when used on hardware current to its release.

Unlike any other Windows upgrade, Windows 7 can be deployed onto existing hardware without needing hardware upgrades and you will still see small performance gains. This alone removes one of the traditional obstacles to in-place operating system upgrades.

Security is always of concern and Windows 7 comes with a slew of security enhancements. The best one results in an improved user experience as well – the update of User Account Control (UAC.)

This update makes UAC (the bane of Windows Vista) into the security tool that it was always meant to be. UAC is now easy to use and control but still powerful enough to protect you in critical ways.

Moving from XP to 7 provides a very important security update, while moving from Vista to 7 makes this technology user friendly enough so that it can remain enabled without the bulk of users demanding that it be removed.

With solid state drives rapidly dropping in price and growing in popularity, having specific support for them in Windows 7 is a already very big deal. This will be even more true over the next few years as solid state drives move from the realm of power user equipment to mainstream user equipment.

Windows 7’s solid state enhancements like TRIM and removal of spindle drive tools like Superfetch and ReadyBoost give SSDs better performance and longer lifespan on Windows 7 then on previous Windows iterations.

These features may not seem like a big deal today but over the lifespan of Windows 7 – as SSDs become more and more of an expected desktop component for the average office worker – these SSD-specific features will play a bigger and bigger role.

Windows 7 Randomly Shuts Down: 7 Ways To Fix It For Good

Windows 7 Randomly Shuts Down: 7 Ways to Fix It For Good Random shutdowns in Windows 7 may be caused by overheating




Sometimes, the system randomly shutdown in Windows 7, often caused by power supply problems or BIOS issues.

This can be easily resolved by updating the OS or by turning off the Fast Startup option.



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Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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Sometimes, your Windows 7 computer may shut down randomly. This can be frustrating, as you may lose unsaved work or even have to restart your computer while doing something important.

If your system shuts down when you are gaming, and you are curious that it is not overheated, check our computer shutting down while gaming guide.

What are the causes of Windows 7 randomly shutting down?

Whenever a system randomly turns off, all the work in progress is lost, which can be frustrating. Several issues can lead to a system turning off without any warning.

With randomly shutting down, if you are facing the issue of your system freezing and then restarting, then you should check our guide to resolve the computer keeps freezing and restarting.

The most common causes of Windows 7 shutting down randomly are:

Overheating – When the temperature of the CPU or GPU goes beyond its safe limit, it can cause the system to turn off automatically to prevent any damage.

Power supply issues – If the power supply is not providing enough power or if it is not stable, it can cause the system to turn off randomly.

Software issues – In some cases, software issues can lead to a system shutting down randomly. This can be due to a buggy driver or a faulty third-party application.

BIOS issues – If the BIOS is not configured properly or is outdated, it can cause the system to turn off randomly.

Now that we know the causes of Windows 7 shutting down randomly, let us look at some ways to fix it.

What can I do if Windows 7 randomly shuts down?

Before we move toward detailed solutions, let’s try some quick fixes:

Ensure the cooling vents are not blocked, and the fan is working properly because overheating is one of the major causes.

Check the power supply and ensure that it is plugged in correctly.

Try restarting your computer because sometimes a simple restart can fix the issue.

After applying the above quick preliminary checks, try the below-detailed solutions if your computer still shuts down randomly.

1. Turn off Fast Startup

If you are using Windows 11 and facing the same problem, then you can check this guide to turn off Fast Startup in Windows 11.

2. Disable automatic restart on system failure

Along with the random shutdown problem, sometimes, if your system restarts randomly, then here is a guide to solve my computer restarts unexpectedly.

Outdated drivers can create many problems in the system, and it can also lead to a system shutting down randomly. So, make sure that you have updated your display adapter drivers.

Expert tip:

Besides updating your outdated display adapters drivers manually, we suggest you try an automated tool, like Outbyte Driver Updater, to help you.

Prevent system errors by letting Outbyte Driver Updater help you locate the latest updates for all your outdated drivers.

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4. Scan your computer for viruses

Once the scanning is complete, all malware is deleted. Hopefully, your problem will be resolved too.

In case your Windows Defender is not scanning your system. Then, check our complete guide on Windows Defender won’t scan on Windows.

Once the process is completed, your Windows will be updated to the latest version, and the problem will be rectified. Do not hesitate to check our guide if your Windows won’t update.

6. Disable Startup programs 7. Edit the Power plan

If the laptop shuts down randomly when not overheating, your power settings could be the underlying cause, and reconfiguring them should do the trick.

Can CPU cause sudden shutdown?

Yes, the CPU can cause a sudden shutdown, given that it powers the computer, quite literally. A drastic fall in the power supply or hardware issues with the CPU can all be responsible even when the PC shuts down automatically after a few minutes.

Regarding the overheating problem, the CPU bears the maximum brunt, and modern-day computers are configured to shut down when the temperature reaches a certain threshold automatically.

If you are using a firewall and firewall notifications are bothering you, and you want to disable them, check our guide on how to disable firewall notifications.

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