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USB hubs are a useful way to get more out of a single USB port. They’re mostly used for laptops which have limited room for USB ports, but there’s nothing stopping you from getting more value out of a front USB port on a PC.
When getting a USB hub, there are some “hidden” specifications to look for. We say “hidden” because they’re not actually hidden from you – they’re in plain sight. They’re just very easy to overlook when buying a hub, which can lead to some disappointing purchases.1. The Number of Ports
This may seem a little condescending, but it’s good to think beyond what you need for ports. For example, let’s assume you hate the touchpad and keyboard of your laptop. As such, you naturally assume you need a two-port hub — one for a mouse, one for a keyboard.
But take a little while to think before you buy. Do you use a USB stick to transfer data? If so, is there another USB port on your laptop you can use for it? If not, consider getting more than two ports. That way, you don’t have to unplug a keyboard or mouse to use your memory stick.
Forward-thinking like this will prevent annoyances in the future. It’s worth looking at the USB hubs that have a few more ports than what you need; if the increase in price is negligible, you can grab that one and save yourself some trouble in the future.2. The Power Output of the Hub
When you’re buying a hub, you can choose between hubs that work off the original port’s power or hubs that use an external power source. The former may seem more tempting; after all, they’re often cheaper than an electric plug socket.
However, consider what you’re plugging in before buying a hub without an external plug. Each of your devices drains a specific amount of power from the USB port. When you convert a port into a hub, the computer port’s total power limit is divided among the ports on the hub.
What this means is that if you overload a hub that doesn’t have an external power supply, some of the devices on the hub won’t work. You can check how much power the hub can support in its product description; it’ll be a number followed by “mA.” It’ll usually be around 500mA for a self-powered hub.
Once you have the power limit, count the power drain for your peripherals. Sometimes this is on a sticker on the underside of the peripheral. For instance, my mouse is 100mA, and my keyboard is 400mA, which equals a total operating current of 500mA. This neatly fits the 500mA requirement for a self-powered hub, but if I add a memory stick, the entire setup would come crashing down!3. The Hub’s Power Source
Speaking of powering the hub, take some time to think about what you’ll use the hub for. Let’s say you’d like the hub to power or charge your devices while the PC is off. If you get a hub powered by an external source, you can charge your gadgets regardless of whether your PC is on or not. You may have a PC that can still charge devices when turned off, at which point you can probably forgo the external plug.4. The Hub Port’s USB Version
Be sure to take a look at the version of the ports on the hub itself. Some hubs will use USB 2.0 to lower costs, but this will result in slower data transfer for USB 3.0 devices. Of course, if all your devices use USB 2.0, this is fine! If you do have some 3.0 devices, however, it’s worth paying a little extra for a hub that can keep up with them.Much Hubbub About Hubs
USB hubs are very useful, but there are “hidden” specifications to look for when buying one. These specs will help you make the best purchase for your usage.
How would you put a USB hub to good use? Let us know below!
Simon Batt is a Computer Science graduate with a passion for cybersecurity.
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Its is October., which means this is the month when Ubuntu 12.10 will be released. Ubuntu 12.10 has been generating lots of noise lately, both for good and bad reasons. Like every other release, Ubuntu 12.10 too will have several new features. Lets have a look at the top ten such new arrivals that should catch your attention:1. Web Apps
Ubuntu’s Web App feature integrates your favorite website with your Ubuntu desktop. This means you can now receive new email alerts, Facebook notifications etc. via the Ubuntu’s desktop notification. You can control several music streaming sites from Ubuntu sound menu. You can see the headlines from top news sites in Ubuntu’s native notification. This new feature will significantly change the way you used your favorite sites.
Read more about Web Apps.2. Remote Login
Ubuntu 12.10 includes the option of remote login to your Ubuntu machine at the start up. It also means that you no longer needs to login in to the local Ubuntu system. You need to set up Ubuntu Remote Login Account on the desired remote machine to use this feature.3. Sponsored Amazon and Ubuntu One suggestions in Unity Dash
From Ubuntu 12.10 onward, if you search for anything, be it music files, documents, applications in Unity Dash, it will show you sponsored search results from Amazon and Ubuntu One. Canonical earns revenue on every hit (or purchase) made through these suggestions. A lot has been discussed about this sponsored Amazon suggestions in recent days. It has angered many Ubuntu lovers and some have gone on to the extent of accusing Mark Shuttleworth (founder of Canonical) of commercializing Linux. Talks are going on to make these sponsored suggestions optional but nothing has been cemented for now.4. Unity Preview 5. Update Manger revamped as Software Updater
The famed Ubuntu Update Manager has been given the pink slip in the new Ubuntu 12.10. It is bound to be replaced by new and fresh looking Software Updater. Functioning similar to Update Manager, it has a little different UI than its predecessor. It checks for the new updates in the following manner:
Once it is done checking, it informs you about the new updates available in similar fashion to Update Manager:
The Software Updater is not available in the system settings any more. It is just another application in Ubuntu 12.10. The name change is a positive step as it will be more clear for new Ubuntu users what the Software Updater does while it was (a bit) ambiguous with Update Manager.6. Additional Driver
The propriety additional drivers are no longer available as a s separate entity. In previous versions, you could just search for additional drivers in Unity Dash but it has been moved to Software Sources in Ubuntu 12.10. There is a new Additional Drivers tab in Software Sources. It lists all the propriety drivers available for your system. Propriety drivers are provided by the hardware manufacturers and Ubuntu developers cannot tweak it to work with Ubuntu.7. Full Disk Encryption
Finally full disk encryption arrives in Ubuntu desktop. While installing Ubuntu 12.10, it now gives you the option of full disk encryption and LVM (Logical Volume Manager). These two features did not have native support in Ubuntu Desktop until now.
Lets discuss a little about what is full disk encryption and what benefits does it have. Lets say your computer got stolen. It was password protected of course but it takes less than 2 minutes to crack Ubuntu root password. What now? Your data is at the mercy of the thief. Disk encryption is your savior in this case. When your disk is encrypted, it can only be accessed with the encryption key and thus it gives your data a military like protection.8. System Settings Options
The System Settings menu (on the top right corner, gear symbol) has been changed as well. It no longer hosts the update information, monitor options or start up application information. On the other hand, it now gives the option “About This Computer” to see the configuration of the system. A new Ubuntu Help link is added to the Settings.9. RIP Ubuntu CD
Ubuntu 12.10 bode farewell to the various CD image options to download and install Ubuntu. All these CD/DVDs are consolidated in to a single image of 800 MB. It also means that one cannot install it from a CD (that has maximum capacity of 700 MB) anymore. Ubutnu has been struggling for sometime to keep all the essential applications packaged in 700 MB and finally it decides to say au revoir to the CD.10. New Updated Packages
Lastly, Ubuntu 12.10 comes with lots of updated versions of popular applications such as Libre Office 3.6, Gimp 2.8, Gnome 3.5.90, Python 3, Linux Kernel 3.5 etc. It also includes Ubuntu One with improved interface that include the option of “share links” for easier sharing of file and folders.
There are definitely more than these 10 features in Ubuntu 12.10. Still in beta, the list of awesomeness may increase by the time the final version comes out. What you think of the upcoming Ubuntu 12.10? What you like or dislike about it the most? Do you feel any feature that is always missing in Ubuntu and should be included in upcoming releases? Do let us know of your views.
Ubuntu 12.10 will be released on October 18th, 2012
Abhishek is a Linux lover and Opens Source enthusiast. He takes a keen interest in day-to-day computer life and wishes to share his experience with others to make their computer experience better and easier. He is the owner of increasingly popular tech blog Computer And You and Open Source blog It’s FOSS.
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The act of “jailbreaking” your iOS device simply means enabling otherwise disabled features and gives you the ability to add applications that aren’t in Apple’s notorious App Store. For example jailbreaking your device prior to iOS 4 was the only way to run multiple applications, like Pandora, at a time.
The jailbreaking community is the largest phone/hacking network on the net with 100s of blogs receiving millions of hits from users looking for the latest news in customizing their iPhone iPod Touch, and now iPad. Saurik, author of Cydia, the most popular alternative to Apple’s App Store, reports that Cydia receives over 2 million unique hits per month.Why
So now that you know what jailbreaking is, let me tell you why the heck you’d want to do it! I know what you’re thinking. “Cody I just got the new iPhone 4, it already comes with multitasking, and I have access to 250,000 sweet apps in the App Store, why would I wanna jailbreak my iPhone?” Easy.
Those of us who are still hungry to free our iDevices have many reasons. I myself, as written before, am crazy about SBSettings. It’s an application that gives you an unobtrusive, drop down widget menu that enables you to turn airplane/bluetooth/wifi on and off with 1 touch. And because it’s only available in Cydia, your device must be jailbroken in order to obtain it.
Other popular applications include Winterboard, an app that enables you to completely customize the look of your iDevice, emulator to play NES games, and MyWi that turns your iPhone into a wireless hotspot.
Unlocking is also a common reason people jailbreak their devices. Unlocking means removing the carrier lock on the phone to enable it to work with a different network. For example, unlocking your iPhone and activating it on T-mobile’s network due to coverage or cost reasons.
Of course an iPhone can only be unlocked to a network with the same chip technology, in the States it’s GSM. Anyways if you haven’t picked up on the theme of the article, your iPhone has to be jailbroken to be unlocked.
There are some cool reasons to jailbreak, but it sounds really complicated. Wrong again! What started off as a complicated, combination of software/hardware hacks, has become almost as easy as plugging your iDevice into your computer, and running a simple application.
Thanks to hackers like The Dev Team and GeoHot, the jailbreaking process has become extremely easy. Although you always run the risk of causing damage to your device, and possibly voiding your warranty, most people jailbreak without problems.When
Ok, so your sold on jailbreaking your shiny new iPhone 4 like a drunk man on another drink, what do you do now? Well, nothing for the moment. If you are looking to really customize your new iPhone 4 icons and lock screen, and get access to all of the above-mentioned apps, stay tuned.
There is a jailbreak for the iPhone 4 but it hasn’t been released to the public yet because it contains some of Apple’s proprietary code. But we should not have to wait too long, The Dev Team is usually pretty quick to respond to Apple updates.
If that doesn’t satisfy you, George Hotz aka GeoHot was heard talking about an exploitable bootrom that will enable an iPhone 4 jailbreak at a French underground hackers conference. So check back here frequently as we will obviously have full coverage including tutorials and how to guides.
Who out there has an iPhone 4 and can’t wait to jailbreak that sucka?
When it comes to Windows, text passwords have always been used traditionally to logon to Windows user accounts. And the text passwords should be long and complex so that people can’t guess them easily. Remembering a long and complex password is not easy. It becomes a headache especially when you have to logoff and logon to the computer frequently.
Although Windows 8 offers new forms of authentication like a picture password or a PIN code, the previous versions of Windows still use the text password authentication system. Windows can also use finger print security but you need a separate hardware device for setting up finger print security.
Rohos Logon Key is a fantastic free utility which turns your USB flash drive into a logon key. This means that you don’t have to enter your password again and again manually. Just insert the USB flash drive and you’re logged on automatically.
There are a few things that I would like to clear before proceeding further. If there is any data stored in the USB flash drive, it will not be lost and will stay intact. Rohos Logon Key will only create its own files for use and not touch the current data.
If you are concerned with the security, Rohos Logon Key does not store the actual user passwords in text form in the USB drive. The application data is stored with AES 256-bit encryption on the drive. So most probably, your user account will remain safe even if you lose access to the USB drive.
Let’s go to the USB drive and see what has been created there. Normally, you will not see anything additional in the USB drive. To see what Rohos Logon Key has added to the USB drive, you will need to go to “Folder Options” and uncheck “Hide protected operating system files” under View tab. You will also need to select “Show hidden files”, folders and drives. After that, you will be able to see a hidden folder called “_rohos”. It will contain a single file called “roh.roh”. If you try to open the file in a text editor, you will see some gibberish text which means that the file is encrypted.
There is one caution that I should give here. The free version of Rohos Logon Key does not provide an emergency logon that helps to access the computer in case you lost the USB drive. As an additional security measure, you should create an additional administrative user and keep its password in a safe place so that you can access the computer in case of emergency.
The professional version of Rohos Logon Key also provides a 2 factor authentication (USB Key + password) but it is needed only when you want to work in a very highly secure environment. Otherwise you can safely implement the free version security to make your user account more secure.
What methods do you use to secure your Windows accounts?
Rohos Logon Key
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There’s a reason why monochromatic makeup styles are so popular right now. They are simple to make, adaptable, and attractive on all skin tones. In this tutorial, we’ll go through how to apply makeup using only one colour family on the lips, cheeks, and eyes. A monochromatic makeup look is the ideal approach to produce a uniform and professional appearance, whether you choose a delicate, natural look or a bold, dramatic one.What is Monochromatic Makeup Look?
While applying makeup, use different hues from the same colour family on the lips, cheeks, and eyes to create a monochromatic makeup look. Greek words “mono” and “chroma,” which both mean “one,” are the roots of the word “monochromatic.” In order to get a unified and harmonious appearance, you would choose one hue or a colour family as the focal point of your makeup in this style of makeup look. For instance, a monochromatic makeup style can involve applying various pink hues—from light to dark—on the lips, cheeks, and eyes.
The intensity of this look can be increased by adding other pink hues belonging to the same colour family after a neutral base, such as a sheer blush or nude eyeshadow, if you want to achieve it. A clean and coordinated cosmetics look that matches your skin tone and achieves a pleasing colour balance would be the end result.
Monochromatic makeup designs are adaptable and suitable for a range of situations, from casual wear to formal affairs. Also, because they work well with various skin tones, they can make your makeup regimen simpler by allowing you to stick to a single colour family. You can really bring out your natural beauty and give yourself a polished, put-together look by going for monochromatic cosmetics look.Step by Step Instruction to Do Monochromatic Makeup
Following are the major steps −Choosing Shades Step 1
An enjoyable method to match your cosmetics to your attire is using monochromatic makeup. It’s simple to get the monochromatic appearance; the only need is that your eyes, lips, and cheeks all be painted with the same hue or colours. For your eyes, lips, and cheeks, pick a basic colour first, then use several shades of that hue. For all three, a single colour can be used. Mix and match textures and play around with the strength of hues to achieve a distinctive style. Consider the following steps to create monochromatic look.
Choose a foundation colour that goes well with the tone of your skin. Red, pink, bronze, brown, nude, and orange are excellent monochromatic colour choices. You can even choose purple, grey, blue, or even green as your foundation colour if you’re feeling particularly daring. Whether your skin has warm, cool, or neutral undertones will determine which colours suit you the best.
Your skin tone is “warm” if it has greenish, olive, or golden undertones. Burnt rust or peach are good choices for your base colour if you have a warm skin tone.
Your tone is “cool” if your skin has a bluish undertone. Very light to very dark skin tones are possible with cool skin. Use burgundy, purple, or magenta as your base colour if your skin tone is cool.
In between warm and cool skin tones, neutral skin tones might have bluish, olive, or golden undertones. If your skin tone is neutral, you can wear either warm or cool colours as long as they are muted. Pick shades of light pink, peach, dusty rose, or bronze.
Often, warm and neutral hues complement monochromatic ensembles the best.Step 2
Employ a range of tones. Once you’ve chosen a foundation colour, apply makeup using a variety of shades of that hue. Use a medium shade of pink on your eyes, a lighter shade on your cheeks, and a deep shade of pink on your lips, for instance, if pink is your foundation colour.
Choose between lavender, mauve, or violet if purple is your primary hue.
Try out dark brown, tan, and taupe if brown is your base colour.Step 3
Employ just one hue. Alternatively, you can go for the classic monochromatic appearance by putting the same shade and hue on your cheeks, lids, and eyes. If you want to create a monochromatic look, you can use watermelon pink on your lips, cheeks, and eyes, for instance.
Lavender can also be used on the lips, cheeks, and eyes.
To create the monochromatic look instead, consider adding magenta to your lips, cheeks, and eyes.Step 4
Try out various values. Using lighter to darker shades of the same colour is another method for creating a monochromatic appearance. Use light, medium, and dark violet as an example. Obtain cosmetics in several shades of the same colour for your lips, cheeks, and eyes. To change the value of your makeup, you can also use brightening bases and primers or shade-adjusting drops.Applying Makeup Step 1
Put on makeup. Apply your makeup as usual, using moisturizer, foundation, and concealer, for example. Your face will be ready for the application of lipstick, blush, and eyeshadow after doing this.Step 2
Put some eyeshadow on. Apply one colour wash to your eyelid with an eyeshadow brush. Use a lighter mascara, such as brown or dark brown, on your lashes and add a line of shadow along your lower lash line. Avoid applying eyeshadow with your fingers since the oils in your palms can change the makeup’s colour.Step 3
Put on some blush. Apply the blush using a brush. To remove any extra powder, tap the brush on a counter before applying the blush. Then, apply blush to your cheekbones and cheek apples.Step 4
Use lipstick to give your lips colour. Put a lipstick in a shade that differs from or is the same as your base colour. Use your finger to apply the lipstick for a more subtle, less graphic appearance. Employ a lighter colour during the day and a darker one at night.Conclusion
A monochrome makeup look is a fantastic approach to present yourself in a coordinated and professional manner. You may create a stunning and harmonious makeup look that is adaptable and pleasing on all skin tones by sticking to one colour family for the lips, cheeks, and eyes. Start with a neutral base, like a subtle blush or nude eyeshadow, then build up the intensity by adding other hues from the same colour family.
When applying colour, keep in mind to blend thoroughly and use a gentle hand to prevent a heavy or patchy application. Add a matching matte or glossy lip colour to complete the look for a finished appearance. You can simply create a great monochromatic makeup look that is appropriate for any occasion by following these instructions and practising a little.
Not much is known about the Cholas before the beginning of the 8th century CE. It is mostly written literary sources that throw a light on the rule and kingship of the Chola rulers.Rise of the Cholas (850-1250 CE)
Ancient Tamil literary texts composed during the Sangama period act as chief sources to know about the times and history of the Cholas. References to the Chola life and times, trade routes, towns, ports and commerce are also found in the Greek text, “Periplus of the Erythraean Sea”.
Mahavamsa, which is a Buddhist canonical text written down during the 5th century CE, also talks about the rule of the Chola kings dating back to 1st century BCE.Did You Know?
Sangama Literature, a body of Tamil religious work is unique in its content to south India.
Composed between 1st and 4th century CE, probably in Madurai it acts as an important source of history of south India.
Though the Chola rulers have ruled large tracts of land in south India from the 1st BCE, it is only the later Cholas (850-1250 CE) who gained prominence.Later Cholas/ Imperial Cholas
The later Cholas and Chola dynasty in history are synonymous and it lasted for more than 1500 years.
Vijayalaya was the founder of the Imperial Cholas. He hailed from a family of chieftains of Uraiyur who ruled parts of Kaveri Delta. Under the reign of the Pallavas, Vijalaya soon rose to political power from the middle of 9th century CE.
He utilized the state of conflict between the Pallava and Pandya dynasties, captured Thajavur (or Thanjor) and founded the Chola Empire. Throughout the middle ages the Cholas were one of the most popular dynasties in India and flourished in art and culture, trade and commerce. They even established trade links outside India.
Cholas are known for their temple architectures and trade and commerce.Extent of the Empire
The rulers who succeeded Vijalaya conquered the neighbouring areas and established a vast empire. The territories of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties in the north and south were also annexed by the successors of Vijayalaya.Notable Chola Rulers
Rulers Time Period Vijayalaya 847-871 CE Rajaraja I 985-1015 CE Rajendra Chola I 1014-1044 CE Rajadhiraja Chola 1044-1052 CE
There were quite a few powerful rulers of the Chola empire, and Rajaraja Chola I was one of them.
Rajaraja Chola I not only consolidated the empire, but also brought about a number of unique administrative changes that are praised by historians even today. His farsightedness went a long way to help the Cholas fortify their rule in south India.
Rajaraja Chola was succeeded by his son, Rajendera Chola I. He further strengthened the Chola rule, and continued to implement his father’s administrative policies.
Rajendra Chola is known for his military prowess as he captured and annexed parts of northern Gangetic planes and even led a military expedition to Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka), parts of South-east Asia. Under his reign, the Chola navy grew up to be a formidable force.
Art & Culture, Trade & Commerce
Temple architecture, carvings on stone and pillar inscriptions flourished during the Chola period. Vijalayalaya built the town of Thanjavur and instructed construction of the beautiful temple dedicated to goddess Nishumbhasudini in Thanjor.
The huge temple complex of Thanjavur (Brihadeshwara Temple) and of Gongaikonda Cholapuram were built by Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I, respectively. Both of them bear specimen to the high degree of artistic ability achieved during that time. The sculptural carvings on the walls of these temples are regarded as artistic marvels by the Art historians.Did You Know?
Brihadeshwara Temple is one of the largest Hindu Temples of India
Built by Rajaraja I in 1010 CE.
Currently, it is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The temple is also popularly called Rajarajeshwaram temple.
The temple is highly regarded for the use of perfect and symmetrical shapes of square and rectangle while building it.Did You Know?
Gongaikonda Cholapuram was the capital city of Chola emperor Rajendra Chola I.
It was the city built to celebrate the victory of Rajendera Chola I over the Pala kingdom.
Images Coming soonChola Temples & Settlements
Settlements grew up lining these temples. These temples were often tied to a patch of farming land. Those who lived in around these temples depended on them for their living and livelihood. Be it the priests and their families, the artisans and craftsmen who helped and worked in the construction of the temple. Others who directly depended on the land associated with the temple would involve garland markers, cooks, sweepers, musicians, dancers etc.
Thus, during the Chola period, temples were not only sacred places of worship but were also important administrative and economic centres. Needless to say as the temples saw a confluence of people from diverse background with varied areas of interest, temples during the Chola period were also at the heart of cultural lives of people during that time.Chola Sculptures
Chola Sculptures Artists during the Chola period not only left behind marvellous temple architectural specimen but they also showcased their refined artistic abilities through metal sculptures. Metal sculpture, especially those engraved on bronze became an artistic highlight of the Chola period. Bronze images during this period were highly regarded across the world. These sculptures were mostly of deities and rulers.
Images Coming soonFAQs
Q1: Around the banks of which river did the Chola Empire come into existence?
Ans: Chola Empire came into existence on the banks of river Kaveri in south India.
Q2: Which was the seat of power during the Chola period?
Ans: Thanavur or Thanjor was the main seat of power during the Chola period.
Q3: Which two dynasties lost their power due to the rise of the Cholas?
Ans: Weakness of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties led to the rise of the Chola empire in South India during the second half of 9th century.
Q4: Name any two powerful Chola rulers.
Ans: Rajaraja Chola I and his son and successor Rajendra Chola were two of the powerful rulers of the Chola dynasty.
Q5: What become an important socio-cultural hub during the Chola period?
Ans: Temples during Chola period were not only important as they bore testament to the level of artistic ability achieved during that time. It was also an important seat of socio-cultural activities as agrarian lands were tied to each temple and human settlement grew up encircling these. The settlements involved people from different professions like priests, sculptors, cook, sweepers, musicians etc.
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